[SOLVED] The Effects of Ampicillin on Transformation in Bacteria
You will prepare and submit a term paper on Effects of Ampicillin on Transformation in Bacteria. Your paper should be a minimum of 1750 words in length. In some plates, growth did not occur because of the absence of the plasmids to offer the genes for resistance. Transformation efficiency was obtained from the growth observed in the media. Conclusively, some bacteria were transformed because they were able to survive in ampicillin rich medium due to the plasmid having genes that are resistant to ampicillin and the plasmid being incorporated into the bacterias DNA. The uptake of DNA is both beneficial and harmful to the organism.Bacteria are microorganisms that are prokaryotes and are single-celled but complex in their structure. The organism exists in different shapes and sizes and is found everywhere. They possess DNA and have organelle like a cell wall that is either gram-positive or negative and is important in the transformation process (Lorenz & Wackernagel, 1994).Ampicillin is an antibiotic, which is used in the treatment of many bacterial infections. The antibiotic is classified as beta-lactam that is from the family of penicillin and also equivalent to the amoxicillin antibiotic with regards to their activity. Ampicillin is very active against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It means therefore that the antibiotic is capable of killing bacterial cells (Albert, Pitzer & Calero, 2012).Its activity in the bacterial cells is enhanced by the presence of sulbactam that generally inhibits the beta-lactamase enzyme that inactivates any antibiotic it is exposed to. Quorum sensing refers to the regulation of the gene expression with the response to the density of the cell population in case of fluctuations (Miller, 1987).The plasmid is a DNA molecule that is double-stranded and small in size. They exist in the cells of bacteria and also in other eukaryotes. The plasmid genes assist the bacteria in offering resistance to any infection or physical destruction on the outer cell surface. Plasmids can be inherited from parents to daughter cells in eukaryotic cells, and be conjugated in bacterial cells (Mello & Fire, 1995). Plasmids are used for cloning and manipulation of genes. The process makes them be referred to as vectors through the creation of a recombinant plasmid as they are introduced to another bacterium cell in the process called transformation. They can then copy large fragments of DNA since they have the ability to divide faster (Smith et al., 1993).
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