SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern

SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern I’m trying to learn for my English class and I’m stuck. Can you help? Attached Files: Journey of Caregiving Report.pdf Journey of Caregiving Report.pdf – Alternative Formats (3.322 MB) Choi Spran & Eslinger 2016-Grandparents raising grandchildren.pdf Choi Spran & Eslinger 2016-Grandparents raising grandchildren.pdf – Alternative Formats (374.324 KB) Moody Sasser 201-208.pdf Moody Sasser 201-208.pdf – Alternative Formats (653.105 KB) Readings/videos: Video: PBS News Hour Toll of COVID 19 on Caregivers (10 minutes) Video: Grandparents raising grandchildren (6 min) Merrill Lynch. (2017).The Journey of Caregiving: Honor, Responsibility and Financial Complexity. A Merrill Lynch study, conducted in partnership with Age Wave. (pages 3-19). SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern Moody: pg. 201-208 Choi, M., Sprang, G., & Eslinger, J.G. (2016). Grandparents raising grandchildren: A synthetic review and theoretical model for interventions. Family and Community Health, 39(2). 120-128 Assignments due: Slightly longer Short Essay (2 pages) [476-5pts/576-3pts]: As people live longer the chances of becoming a family caregiver are a reality for many. Following a review of pages 14-19 in the “Journey of Caregiving” report, conduct a short interview of someone you know is (or was) a caregiver for an older adult. In your essay, compare and contrast the experience of the interviewee and the report’s description of a typical caregiving journey starting with a health concern and concluding with the aftermath of caregiving. How has COVID 19 impacted the caregiver? Reflecting on the information gained from this assignment, what do you think will be (or is) the most challenging aspect of being a family caregiver and what help will you need from others to cope with this challenge? moody_sasser_201_208.pdf choi_spran___eslinger_2016_grandparents_raising_grandchildren.pdf ml_caregiving_wp_v02g.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Drake Memorial LIBRARY Interlibrary Loan & Document Delivery Services [email protected] • 585.395.2727 Copyright Notice The copyright law of the United States governs the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include- (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The College at Brockport • 350 New Campus Drive • Brockport, New York 14420 LWW/FCH FCH-D-15-00033 January 29, 2016 21:15 Grandparents Raising Grandchildren A Synthetic Review and Theoretical Model for Interventions Moon Choi, PhD; Ginny Sprang, PhD; Jessica G. Eslinger, PhD The number of custodial grandparents has increased signi?cantly over the past decade. Building on Hayslip’s and Kaminski’s comprehensive review of the literature on custodial grandparenting, we conducted an updated review of the literature, in particular peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004. We have developed a conceptual model to contribute to understanding the causes and consequences of custodial grandparenting, using the stress-coping framework while highlighting the emerging issues related to contemporary grandfamilies such as cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in grandfamilies. We also emphasized loss, grief, and trauma among grandfamilies and provided the implications for effective public and community health programs. Key words: grandfamilies, mental health, stress and coping, trauma, violence HE NUMBER of grandparents raising grandchildren has increased significantly over the past decade.1 In 2010, 7 million grandparents lived with grandchildren younger than 18 years; among them, 2.7 million grandparents were responsible for the basic needs of 1 or more grandchildren— defined as grandparents raising grandchildren.1 Notably, about 25% of these grandparents had a disability, and approximately 21% were identified as living in poverty.1 T Author Af?liations: Graduate School of Science and Technology Policy, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea (Dr Choi); College of Social Work, University of Kentucky, Lexington (Dr Choi); College of Medicine Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky, Lexington (Dr Sprang); and Center on Trauma and Children, University of Kentucky, Lexington (Drs Sprang and Eslinger). This project titled, “Partners in Relationship: Addressing the Needs of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren” (G. Sprang, P.I.) is supported by the Eastern Kentucky United Methodist Health, Education & Welfare Fund. M. Choi is supported by New Faculty Development grants from KAIST as well as by a grant (NRF-2015018593) from the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the of?cial views of the Eastern Kentucky United Methodist Foundation, University of Kentucky, KAIST, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea, and the National Research Foundation of Korea.SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern The authors declare no con?ict of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www. familyandcommunityhealth.com). Correspondence: Moon Choi, PhD, Graduate School of Science and Technology Policy, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea ([email protected]). Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000097 120 Family and Community Health The practice of extended family members participating in the care and raising of children is a long-standing cultural tradition in many parts of the world. However, the reasons for the current trend toward grandparent-headed households with children are a reflection of more contemporary problems. Caregiver substance abuse, child abuse and neglect, intimate partner violence, and parental incarceration exacerbate existing economic and health problems and contribute to the need for grandparents to become primary caregivers.2,3 The incident of exposure to domestic violence and child abuse is greatly increased in families where substance-misusing caregivers are present.4 Some states have enacted laws, making it a felony to use or manufacture drugs in the presence of children, leading to increased incarceration of substance-misusing parents.5 In this context, many custodial grandparents cope simultaneously with the loss that placed them in that role such as the death or incarceration of their adult child due to substance misuse or violence, as well as their grandchild’s grief related to parental loss and the trauma of living in these violent or neglectful homes.6-8 Becoming a custodial grandparent has been reported to result in negative health and social outcomes, social isolation, and role overload among older adults.6,9 Research evidence also suggests that these kinship care arrangements with grandparents, while popular and often preferable to foster care placements, are accompanied by less psychosocial support and financial assistance from child protection agencies than other out of home arrangements.10,11 However, the subsequent impact of this phenomenon on the health and well-being of the child, grandparents, and community is largely undocumented. In the social context wherein the heterogeneity and instability of family structures have emerged and increased, the needs of and programs for April–June 2016 ? Volume 39 ? Number 2 Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. LWW/FCH FCH-D-15-00033 January 29, 2016 21:15 M. Choi et al. custodial grandparents have been actively discussed both in academia and society. Notably, in 2005, Hayslip and Kaminski did a comprehensive review of the literature on grandparents raising grandchildren over the previous 15 years and pointed out some important challenges for practitioners and researchers. They highlighted the critical need for parenting skills training, support groups, and programs to reduce barriers to medical, legal, and financial assistance services among custodial grandparents. Since 2005, a large volume of literature on grandparents raising grandchildren has appeared. Much of the extant literature emphasizes issues in the contemporary cohort of custodial grandparents, such as unique mental health service needs as well as diversity and complexity in social, cultural, and ethnical backgrounds among current grandfamilies. A notable gap in the literature is the effect of violence and other types of trauma exposure on grandfamilies, and the need for interventions targeting trauma, loss, caregiver substance use, and child maltreatment that face many contemporary custodial grandparents and their grandchild. To address the knowledge gaps and emerging issues for grandparents raising grandchildren, this forum article aims to (a) provide a synthetic review of the literature on grandparents raising grandchildren since 2004, (b) apply a theoretical framework of stress coping to understand service needs and utilization, (c) provide implications for interventions, specifically targeting trauma and loss, and (d) discuss potential implementation in real-world settings, considering the heterogeneity in grandfamilies.SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern LITERATURE SEARCH Hayslip and Kaminski6 conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on grandparents raising grandchildren. Building on their work, we conducted an updated review of the literature, with a particular focus on peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed and EBSCO host that included the databases of Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycInfo, Social Work Abstracts, Ageline, and the Sociological Collection, with the assistance of a research librarian. We used the following search terms: “grandparent(s) as parent(s),” “grandmother(s) as parent(s),” “grandfather(s) as parent(s),” “grandparent(s) raising grandchild(ren),” “grandmother(s) raising grandchild(ren),” “grandfather(s) raising grandchild(s),” “kinship care and grandparent(s),” “kinship care and grandmother(s),” “kinship care and grandfather(s),” “custodial grandparent(s),” “custodial grandmother(s),” and “custodial grand- Grandparents Raising Grandchildren 121 father(s).” The search was restricted to the literature published from January 1, 2004, and written in English. A total of 134 journal articles were selected for full-text review on the basis of the inclusion criteria of (a) peer-reviewed journal publication and (b) subject matter pertaining to grandparents as primary caregivers of grandchildren (ie, grandparents raising grandchildren) in the United States (see Supplemental Digital Content Appendix I, available at http://links.lww.com/FCH/A6). SEARCH RESULTS A broad range of topics were identified among the selected texts. Two reviewers (J. Eslinger and M. Choi) categorized 134 articles into 9 primary and 5 secondary groups by topics (see Table). Primary categories pertain to the main foci of articles, and secondary categories include specific population (eg, ethnic minorities) or background of grandparenting (eg, family history resulting in grandparenting such as military deployment). For example, the article by Ross and Aday12 on stress and coping in African American grandparents was categorized into the primary group of “well-being of grandparents” and the secondary group of “African American grandparents.” In this way, we were able to identify journal articles addressing a specific demographic population or those who may have special service needs, which provide implications for programs and policies. The construct of “well-being of grandparents” was most studied and had the largest number of journal articles. The well-being of grandparents included health status,13,14 depressive symptoms,15,16 caregiver stress,12,17 and emotional strain.18 The category of “services for grandparents” included 22 journal articles, which focused on evaluation of service programs, discussion of current programs, or service needs. Many articles were categorized under the broadly defined “others” category, indicating the varied scope of inquiry about grandparents raising their grandchildren. Areas of study within this category included policy and service implications of grandparents raising their grandchildren,6,19,20 proposed theoretical conceptualization to help understand grandfamilies,16,20,21 the identification of risks and benefits for parenting grandparents,16,22,23 and cultural implications related to grandparenting.24-27 PRIMARY FINDINGS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW The primary findings of this review are 2-fold. First, there are increasing needs and diversity among custodial grandparents—especially related to ethnicity and gender of custodial grandparents. The Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. LWW/FCH FCH-D-15-00033 122 January 29, 2016 21:15 Family and Community Health April–June 2016 ? Volume 39 ? Number 2 TABLE. Categories of Journal Articles by Topics Primary Category Number of Articles Secondary Category Number of Articles Well-being of grandparents 40 African American grandparents 19 Services for grandparents 22 Other ethnic minorities 12 Policies and laws 17 Family history resulting in grandparenting 6 Relationships between grandparents and their grandchildren 11 Grandfathers parenting grandchildren 5 Child with special conditions 1 Parenting skills of grandparents 4 Health and achievement of grandchildren 4 Communication between grandparents and their grandchildren 2 Training health professionals working with grandparents 2 Others 32 presence of parenting grandparents in society is on the increase, and this occurs through a variety of pathways.28,29,30 However, formal policies and services for grandparents—especially in the areas of concrete and financial services—remain an area of need.19,23,31-35 While grandfamilies are found across all cultural and ethnic backgrounds, we need to pay special attention to the care needs among African American and other ethnic minority grandfamilies.12,16,18,24,25,30,36-39 In addition, much of the existing literature has focused on the caregiving needs and experiences of grandmothers with less attention on the needs and experiences of grandfathers.15,18,22,23,26,34-37,40-44 Second, grandfamilies go through the highly stressful “process” of care and role changes influenced by various stressors.29 For example, the exposure to substance abuse, parenting instability, maltreatment, neglect, and loss prior to placement into a grandparent’s care can lead to emotional, behavioral, and academic difficulties for children in grandfamilies.45 The acceptance of the parenting role can lead to substantive shifts in the grandparent and grandchild relationship.46,47 Being a grandparent raising grandchildren often results in changes in their adult relationships, financial stability, and physical and emotional health.14,15,18,48,49 Points of interest We highlighted the issues that have received the most attention in the peer-reviewed journal articles published since 2004 in the following section. We also discuss the implications of these issues on developing and providing social and health services for grandfamilies. SUNYCB Covid 19 Interviewee Experience Caregiving Journey & Health Concern Formal and informal social support The role of social support in the well-being of grandparents raising their grandchildren has contin- ued to be an area of focus in the literature for the past 10 years. The review by Hayslip and Kaminski6 addressed unmet needs for social support and identified loneliness as a problem experienced by custodial grandparents. Recent research has also reported that grandparents feel socially isolated from same-age peers, and parenting their grandchildren often makes it difficult to find the time to spend with intimate partners.13 In addition, formal and informal support has been found to reduce negative outcomes from stress on the well-being of grandparents raising their grandchildren.17,50 The presence of formal social support for grandparents appears to be helpful, particularly in reducing certain types of caregiver stress. For example, Gerard and colleagues50 found formal support to be protective of parenting stress associated with parenting a grandchild with health problems. Social support has been also found to be positively correlated with physical health status.14 However, further research is needed to fully understand the relationships between aspects of social support and types of parenting stress, such as stress related to grandchild or grandparent health, isolation from peers, and financial difficulties. Cultural sensitivity and awareness Similar to the findings of the review by Hayslip and Kaminski,6 recent studies have reported that ethnic minority families in the United States often have high rates of custodial grandparents. For example, Mexican American grandparents older than 45 years are 4 times more likely to be grandparents raising grandchildren than non-Hispanic whites.25 In addition, the findings from previous studies about ethnic minority grandparents have helped identify different needs among ethnic minority groups. For example, Asian American grandparents providing Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. LWW/FCH FCH-D-15-00033 January 29, 2016 21:15 M. Choi et al. primary care for a grandchild are more likely to be younger and female than nonparenting Asian American grandparents.51 Native American grandfamilies more often seek out support services through their Tribal Nations or through Native American urban agencies as opposed to national—or statefunded programs.38 Adherence to cultural traditions has been reported to be particularly important among Native American grandparents raising grandchildren.52 These findings reinforce the importance of considering the differing cultural perspectives in developing services and programs for grandparents raising grandchildren. New areas of research Since the review by Hayslip and Kaminisk,6 several new areas of study have emerged. Relationships between grandparents and their grandchildren have been increasingly examined; by and large, grandparents and their grandchildren have reported feeling a close emotional bond to one another.46,53 Goodman and Rao53 found that 83% of children raised by a grandparent reported feeling emotionally close to their caregiving grandparent. However, emotional and behavior problems of the child, in addition to stressors such as financial difficulties, were found to interrupt a grandparent’s feelings of emotional closeness with his or her grandchild.46 In addition, Poehlmann and colleagues54 found that children were more likely to exhibit acting out behaviors when they perceived a lack of responsiveness from their caregiving grandparent. Research has also begun to focus on formulating a better understanding of how the transition from grandparent to parenting grandparent may affect levels of stress and well-being. Previous research has reported elevated levels of stress associated with becoming a primary caregiver of a grandchild among older adults.13,14,17,43,48,50 Grandparents, who are newcomers to the parenting role, would be at higher risk for negative health outcomes than experienced grandparents.15 However, grandparents who cared for their grandchild for longer periods of time report more positive levels of well-being than their newer counterparts.15 These findings suggest that the shift in the role from grandparent to parenting grandparent may be a time of elevated stress for grandfamilies. CONCEPTUAL MODEL The process of transition to grandparents raising grandchildren is complex, wherein multiple factors—such as family history, relationship, and ethnicity—influence adjustment to the custodial role.6 It is critical to understand how these issues affect the causes and consequences of custodial Grandparents Raising Grandchildren 123 grandparenting. Elucidating the components of the process by establishing a conceptual model helps illustrate the adaptive processes associated with custodial grandparenting and, therefore, enables professionals working with grandfamilies to develop effective interventions that ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with this role transition. We developed a conceptual model of causes and consequences of custodial grandparenting from a stress-coping framework with a reference to the model by Choi et al (see Figure).55 The stress-coping approach provides an explanatory framework for understanding the losses and adverse life circumstances faced by older adults and their psychosocial and physical well-being.56 This approach can assist with understanding how a grandchild’s exposure to traumatic experiences, such as violence and exposure to parental substance abuse, can affect grandparent caregiver coping and well-being. 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