SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion

SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Social Psychology Article Summary and Critical Analysis Assignment Throughout the semester you will be required to write THREE article summaries. These will serve as summaries of scientific, peer-reviewed literature. In approximately 8-10 sentences, in one paragraph, you should summarize the research theory and justification, methods, and results. In other words, what did they do, what did they measure, what were the results (which groups differed or didn’t and how did they differ?), and what are the implications? Be CONCRETE. Don’t say that they used a self-esteem manipulation. Say something like “All participants took a bogus IQ test. Half of the participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group and told that they only scored in the 20th percentile on the test. The other half were assigned to a control group and received no feedback about the IQ test.” See how that is much more concrete than simply saying they manipulated self-esteem. So, details are good. Do not report statistics. Just describe basic trends using words like “greater than, less than, correlated with, unrelated, etc.”. You don’t need to say how many people were in the study, or what school they attended. Just what did the researchers do, what did they measure, what were the results (how did the groups differ) and what are the implications? In an additional paragraph (4-6 sentences) you are to provide an analysis and critique of the article that you read. What are the strengths in the research design? Any weaknesses? Can you connect it to any other studies that you have read about? Additionally, you must use in text citations and provide a properly formatted reference using APA style. Avoid using direct quotations. To reiterate, you will be submitting -8-10 sentence summary of the study -4-6 sentences critiquing the study Example APA style in-text references can be found here: e/in_text_citations_the_basics.html Example APA style reference lists can be found here: e/reference_list_basic_rules.html The PDF’s as well as examples can be found in Canvas in the Research Article Options module. Main Idea & Supporting details Exemplar Summary logically follows the order of scientific méthode. SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion. Proficient Summary follows scientific structure but some sections are less detailed Developing Absent/Missing Summary Work is missing. contains aspects of the scientific method but they may be in coût Enough information is provided on each section without being repetitive. Complex information such as statistics are explained in a simple, readable way. than others. Overall clear information and detail provided but may contain minor mistakes or skim over statistics. erintuice order such as results before methods APA Style Summary reflects Consistent use of APA style throughout with no errors. Reference list is complete and formatted correctly. In text citations are accurate and appropriately placed. Overall cosnisitent use of APA style but may contain minor mistakes in one or a few references. Reference list is complete and formatted correctly, allowing for a few minor errors. In text citations are included but repetitive or too infrequent. There is some indication of a reference list such as copy / pasted website links but they are jot in APA style. References likely do not contain in text citations or if they do the citations are incorrect. There is no indication of use of APA style and a reference list is absent Mechanics, Grammar, Structure Summary reflects the use of appropriate grammar and scientific language throughout. Syntactical errors are absent and language used is professional. Summary reflects the use of appropriate grammar and scientific language with minor mistakes. Organization overall is clear and consistent, but several sections could Summary demonstrates a clear attempt to use scientific language but concepts are ill defined or lacking detail. Structure is messy and organization impedes Work is missing. Critique Transition use revision to statements help be more concise to guide the or descriptive. writing smoothly from one idea to the next. understanding, for example hypothesis is stated after methods. Syntax, spelling, and grammar issues are consistent. Critique logically points out flaws or strengths in the current study with a clear understanding of scientific methods and experimetnal design. Critique is not related to the article or is illogical. Critique comments on the article with some reference to experimental design. Critique is absent. Examples of questions to think about when answering critique: • • • • • Are the qualifications and expertise of the author stated? If so what are they (if they are not stated, be sure to state this)? (2.5 pts) What are the qualifications and expertise of the expert opinions cited or quoted (do this for each person or organization, note if there weren’t any be sure to state this)? (2.5 pts) Discuss the use of photographs, tables, figures, and other graphics. Were they used? Were they accurate? What was the source? Did they support the thesis of the article? Did they have an emotional impact – explain? (2.5 pt) Could you tell the writers’ attitude towards the issue? How? Were all sides of the issue represented? What, if any sides or viewpoints, were left out? Do you think the article was biased? Why or why not? (5 pts) Did the article in any way change your perception and/or interest in the subject? Discuss why or why not? (7.5 pts) Optimism: An Enduring Resource for Romantic Relationships Kimberly K. Assad and M. Brent Donnellan Rand D. Conger Michigan State University University of California, Davis Individuals differ in terms of their general expectations for the future—ranging from individuals who expect the best to those who expect the worst. SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion This individual difference is captured by measures of dispositional optimism, and it appears to have consequences for both physical health and psychological well-being (e.g., Brissette, Scheier, & Carver, 2002; Carver & Scheier, 2002; Kivima?ki, Vahtera, Elovainio, Helenius, Singh-Manouc, & Pentti, 2005; Peterson & Steen, 2002; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 2001; Segerstrom, Taylor, Kemeny, & Fahey, 1998). The positive outcomes associated with optimism are perhaps due to the fact that optimists use more adaptive coping behaviors than pessimists (e.g., Brissette et al., 2002; Scheier & Carver, 1988; Scheier, Weintraub, & Carver, 1986; Segerstrom et al., 1998; see Solberg Nes & Segerstrom, 2006 for a meta-analytic review). The goal of this article is to extend work on dispositional optimism to some of the behaviors that promote healthy, happy, and satisfying romantic relationships using two-waves of prospective, multi-informant data from the Family Transitions Project (FTP), an on-going study of sociological and psychological aspects of the transition to young adulthood (Conger & Conger, 2002). LINKING OPTIMISM TO ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS A number of studies have shown that individual differences are associated with the functioning of romantic relationships (e.g., Bradbury & Fincham, 1988; Caughlin, Huston, & Houts, 2000; Donnellan, Larsen-Rife, & Conger, 2005; Karney & Bradbury, 1995; Robins, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2000). For instance, Karney and Bradbury (1995) suggested that certain personality dispositions such as emotional instability create “enduring vulnerabilities” (p. 23) that affect how couples adapt to stressful experiences. We propose that just as some personality characteristics may prove to be liabilities for relationships, other dispositions may serve as “enduring resources“ for relationships because they help facilitate problem solving, promote closeness, strengthen commitment and fidelity, or otherwise bolster close relationships. The hypothesis for the current analysis is that dispositional optimism serves as one such enduring resource for romantic relationships (see Bryant & Conger, 2002). Consistent with this suggestion, Srivastava, McGonigal, Richards, Butler, and Gross (2006) recently reported that optimism was positively associated with relationship satisfaction. Optimism should facilitate relationships in several ways. Perhaps most important, optimism is linked with the successful pursuit of goals (Carver & Scheier, 2002; Scheier & Carver, 1988), and one goal shared by a majority of people is to attain a happy romantic union. For example, approximately 90% of the participants in the FTP (Conger & Conger, 2002) rated the goal of having a good marriage as extremely or very important to themselves during their senior year of high school. Likewise, over 90% of adults in a representative sample of residents in California, Florida, New York, and Texas agreed that a satisfying marriage was one of the most important things in life (Karney & Bradbury, 2005). Finally, Roberts and Robins (2000) found that having a satisfying marriage or relationship was the highest rated goal in a sample of Kimberly K. Assad and M. Brent Donnellan, Department of Psychology, Michigan State University; Rand D. Conger, Department of Human and Community Development, University of California, Davis. This research is currently supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD047573), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (HD051746), and the National Institute of Mental Health (MH051361). Support for earlier years of the study also came from multiple sources, including the National Institute of Mental Health (MH00567, MH19734, MH43270, MH59355, MH62989, and MH48165), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA05347), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD027724), the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health (MCJ-109572), and the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Adolescent Development Among Youth in High-Risk Settings.SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion Kimberly K. Assad and M. Brent Donnellan contributed equally to this article. We thank Joan Poulsen and Kimdy Le for helpful comments on previous versions of the article. Debby Kashy and Dave Kenny provided valuable modeling tips and suggestions; however, we take full responsibility for all analytic choices. We also thank Jennifer Piccard, who collected the data described in Footnote 1 as part of her honors thesis at Michigan State University under the supervision of M. Brent Donnellan. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to M. Brent Donnellan, Department of Psychology, Psychology Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823. E-mail: [email protected] 285 286 ASSAD, DONNELLAN, AND CONGER college students. Thus, because optimism is linked to the attainment of important goals, we predicted that optimism would be generally associated with happier and more satisfying romantic relationships, given that this seems to be such a ubiquitous life goal. What mechanisms might account for the hypothesized relation between optimism and successful romantic unions? According to the behavioral self-regulation model proposed by Carver and Scheier (e.g., Scheier & Carver, 1988; Scheier et al., 2001), optimism helps sustain goal attainment behaviors in the face of difficulties or obstacles. In this model, optimism is simply a generalized positive expectancy that facilitates the pursuit of goals in the face of adversity. In contrast, individuals who have generalized negative expectancy are more likely to disengage (either in behavioral or psychological terms) in the face of difficulties. Simply put, “optimism leads to continued efforts to attain the goal, whereas pessimism leads to giving up” (Peterson, 2000, p. 47). Most marriages and committed romantic relationships experience periods of conflict, disenchantment, or contextual challenges; therefore, it is likely that the tendency of optimists to persevere in the face of such difficulties would promote a satisfying romantic union. One particular mechanism linking optimism to relationships might involve problem solving. Specifically, we hypothesized that optimists would work to manage the negative emotions that stem from relationship discord and strive to reduce the areas of disagreement in their relationships. Put differently, we expected that optimism would be positively correlated with cooperative problem solving in romantic relationships. By cooperative problem solving, we mean concerted attempts to work with romantic partners to resolve problems and disagreements without attacking, belittling, or blaming partners for the existence of difficulties in the relationship. Such a strategy for coping with relationship conflicts should promote the union, given that problem solving of this sort is an important correlate of relationship satisfaction and stability (e.g., Christensen, 1988; Fitzpatrick, 1988; Heavey, Larson, Zumtobel, & Christensen, 1996; Stanley, Markman, & Whitton, 2002). For example, Heavey et al. (1996) found that observer reports of constructive problem solving were strongly correlated with selfreports of marital adjustment (i.e. rs ? .50). In addition, cooperative problem-solving efforts of this sort have been shown to attenuate the negative impact of economic stressors on romantic relationships (Conger, Reuter, & Elder, 1999). The proposal that optimism would be associated with problem solving in relationships is broadly consistent with the findings of a recent meta-analysis that concluded that optimism is generally associated with coping strategies that aim to “eliminate, reduce, or manage stressors or their emotional consequences in some way“ (Solberg Nes & Segerstrom, 2006, p. 248; see e.g., Carver & Scheier, 2002; Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989; Chang & D’Zurilla, 1996; Maddi & Hightower, 1999; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994; Scheier et al., 2001; Segerstrom et al., 1998). These authors label such strategies as “approach” coping strategies, and this tendency of optimists to favor approach forms of coping is consistent with our hypothesis that optimism facilitates cooperative problem solving. To be sure, our conceptualization of cooperative problem solving seems like a relationship-specific form of approach coping. Finally, whereas we were primarily concerned with the idea that dispositional optimism affects romantic relationships, it is also plausible that experiences in romantic relationships may affect optimism.SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion This proposition followed from theoretical work by Huston (2000) that suggests that experiences in intimate unions may influence the psychological make-up of individuals just as characteristics of the individual may affect characteristics of intimate unions. Likewise, recent theorizing in personality development (e.g., Caspi, 1998; Neyer & Asendorpf, 2001) suggests that social relationships are tied to the development of personal characteristics. Indeed, although dispositional optimism is a relatively stable individual difference construct, stability coefficients for optimism do not approach unity (e.g., Scheier et al., 1994). This raises the possibility that life events may influence optimism (Atienza, Stephens, & Townsend, 2004; Segerstrom, in press) and that, as Peterson (2000) suggested, “stress and trauma of all sorts take their toll on optimism” (p. 51). Thus, we considered the possibility that involvement in a distressed and dissatisfying relationship may have a deleterious impact on optimism, whereas involvement in a satisfying and happy union may promote optimism. THE PRESENT STUDY In sum, the previously reviewed conceptual and empirical work supports our hypothesis that optimism should be linked to satisfying romantic relationships, and we proposed that a substantial portion of this link should be mediated by problem solving. Moreover, there are also theoretical and conceptual reasons for expecting that satisfying romantic relationships may affect optimism. Accordingly, we pursue answers to three questions in this article: (a) Does optimism predict the quality of romantic relationships? (b) Is the link between optimism and relationship quality mediated by cooperative problem solving? (c) Are optimism and the qualities of romantic relationships reciprocally interrelated over time? We addressed these questions using prospective, longitudinal data from the FTP (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). In addition to these substantive goals, we also evaluated the psychometric adequacy of a questionnaire-based measure of cooperative problem solving. There are two features of this investigation that are worth highlighting. First, we used longitudinal data to examine the links between optimism and romantic relationships. Thus, we could explicitly examine how optimism and relationship quality are interrelated over time and use temporal ordering to help constrain the inferences drawn from these analyses. SOP 4004 University of South Florida Social Psychology & Optimism Discussion Second, we used a multi-informant design (self-report and partner report) to evaluate our hypotheses. This measurement strategy helped us in addressing the criticism that shared method variance inflates the association between individual characteristics and relationship variables when a single reporter is used for all measures in a study (e.g., Gottman, 1998). To be sure, there is always a possibility that method variance or “glop” (e.g., Bank, Dishion, Skinner, & Patterson, 1990) is a reasonable alternative explanation for observed correlations between self-reports of dispositions and self-reports of relationship variables. Fortunately, the use of multiple informant data is the simplest and most frequently recommended way of dealing with this concern (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee & Podsakoff, 2003). OPTIMISM AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS METHOD Sample The participants in this investigation were drawn from a larger sample designed to study the transition from adolescence to early adulthood, the Family Transitions Project (FTP). A broad overview of the FTP is provided by Conger and Conger (2002). The FTP started in 1994 (Wave 1) and followed a community sample of more than 500 focal participants who previously participated in the Iowa Youth and Families Project and the Iowa Single Parent Project. The ethnic/racial background was predominately European American and largely reflected the underlying demographics of rural Iowa. Data analyzed in this report came from those individuals who participated in Waves 8 and 10 of the FTP with their romantic partners. Waves 8 and 10 were the first time that the measure of optimism was administered to this sample. We refer to these waves by the primary year of data collection (2001 and 2003, respectively). Because there were so few participants involved in same-sex unions (1 in 2001 and 2 in 2003), we restricted analyses to heterosexual romantic relationships. All told, we had complete cross-sectional data from 351 couples in 2001 (67.5% were married, 20.0% were cohabiting full-time, and 12.5% were not cohabiting on a full-time basis) and complete cross-sectional data from 337 couples in 2003 (80.0% were married, 14.0% were cohabiting full-time, and 6.0% were not cohabiting on a full-time basis). In 2001, the average age of women in these couples was 24.84 years (SD ? 1.64) based on the response to the question: “What was your age in years at your last birthday?” and the average age of men was 26.53 years (SD ? 2.88). In 2003, the average age of women in these couples was 26.78 years (SD ? 1.65), and the average age of men was 28.64 years (SD ? 3.33). There were 293 couples with complete optimism and relationship data at both the 2001 and 2003 waves of the FTP, and 274 of those couples involved with the same relationship partners in both waves (93.5%). We used this subsample of 274 couples for longitudinal analyses. Procedure Couples were visited in their homes by tra … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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