Module 8: Social Justice for Older Americans (graded) Yvette: The amount of my current estimated retirement benefit will not be enough for me to retire comfortably. I had already begun looking into ways to supplement my income. I will be 52 years old this year. If I retire at full retirement age, which right now is 67, I do not have many years left before I am at that age. I also need to update my 401K or at least look at it and verify I am paying enough into it. One of the ways I have looked to supplement or have a supplemental income to retire is I started a small business earlier this year (I own a Candle business. Crescent Candles-I am from New Orleans the Crescent City-hence the name). It is something I enjoy as well as something that can grow and expand into other artisan/craft items such as soaps, body butters, and bath bombs, etc. I was a licensed Cosmetologist and make-up artist for almost 20 years so the beauty business and things around self-care have always been a passion and something I have dabbled in. I can no longer do makeup or hair professionally due to my arthritis issues. I will do an occasional family member or friend (If they twist my arm). One other avenue I looked into is this Social work program. I originally was in another University’s Masters program for Healthcare Management and Administration and realized it would not benefit me at a more advanced age as social work would. As a social worker, I can work well past the standard retirement age of 67, therefore, allowing more time to pay into Social Security. It will also allow me to work remotely even if my health is not as good as someone who works in an actual facility like a hospital or clinic. Case Management and virtual or telephonic appointments are possible for those who work remotely or from home or a small office. Recommendation One thing that I took notice of in the article you suggested we read was how in 2037 the Social Security benefits trust fund reserves are anticipated to become depleted. Supposedly, when the reserves are exhausted, continuing taxes should be enough to compensate 76 % of scheduled benefits. They believe with advance warning it will allow the trustees the ability to enact legislation changes in the scheduled revenues and benefits that they state wont need to be taken into effect for many years. It will also allow those who will be affected the most by the changes to prepare and plan for the future fallout. I was naïve to think if it is coming out of my payroll it should be there when I decide to retire. This is showing how untrue that is. A recommendation would be that legislation is created and continually updated that would balance out Social Security and allow the income that we put in we get out. Possibly piggy-backing on the legislation they have in place focusing on the solvency of the Social Security trust funds. This has the ability to allow the trust funds to pay the full benefits in the law in a timely manner (Goss, 2010). Reference: Goss, S. (2010). The future of financial status of the Social Security program. Social Security Bulletin. 70(3). Retrieved from https://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v70n3/v70n3p111.html Module 8: The Individual in Adolescence (graded Carla: Gilligan theorizes that women and men/girls and boys develop moral milestones not due to deficiencies or unfair applications of male-centered developmental theories, but as a result of their behavioral manifestations of their gender differences. (Gilligan, n.d.). Gilligan’s feminist theories indicate a particular emphasis on the development of morality steeped in care concerns for women and justice concerns for men. She notes that this development is manifested as a result of relationships and how their behavior will and can affect others. According to this theory, Alicia falls between preconventional and conventional. Because she is still connected to her mother in a part-time manner, as well as her friends, she is straddling the line between the two stages. Her behavior indicates preconventional, though her infrequent encounters with her mother indicate that she has some modicum of interest in reconciling how her behavior is interpreted and can affect those around her. Effective treatment and intervention would aid in propelling Alicia toward the conventional phase and reconciliation with her mother. Intervention may include talk therapy (both with Alicia and her mother together as well as individual therapy), resources indicated for at-risk youth such as community engagement, community mentorship, art therapy, journaling, and in-school outreach. Kohlberg’s theory of experiential learning can help with Alicia’s educational experience by creation of a story to gauge Alicia’s moral compass and assess her readiness and willingness to adjust her behavior in order to best meet the educational expectations that her mother has for her as well as those that she has for herself. Mcleod, S. (n.d.). Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development. Retrieved August 24, 2020, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html Team, G. (2011, November 11). Carol Gilligan. Retrieved August 24, 2020, from https://www.goodtherapy.org/famous-psychologists/carol-gilligan.html Module 8: Teen Pregnancy (graded) Donna: Hello Dr. Matthews and Classmates, **Three problems associated with teen pregnancy may include: Many health problems may arise for the teen, and for the baby. Girls who become pregnant in their teen years are more likely to come from impoverished environments, drop out of high school, and spend much of their life as single parents dependent on public assistance than those who delay childbirth until adulthood. Children born to teens are more likely than children born to older parents to be incarcerated, to drop out of school or have low academic achievement, and to become teen parents themselves. **Why is sex education debatable? The big debate is if sex education should be taught in the schools, and what curriculum should be used? There are the conservative people who feel teens should abstain from sex, and on the other side of the debate, where teens should be educated on what they need to know if engaging in sexual activity. Some parents do not want their teens to learn about sex, because they believe the education will heighten curiosity about sexual activity. Some people do not believe in birth control, and some also believe that women do not have the right to abort a fetus. So, these parents certainly do not want their teens to learn sex ed in school. And there are other parents who hope and pray their teen learns the information in school, so they dont have to have the sex talk with their teen. **What are the critiques of sex education? Here are three examples: Evidence suggests that programs for reducing teen pregnancy need to be built around a comprehensive model that incorporates myriad components including, but not limited to, parenting education, job training, employment opportunities, academic support, health and mental health care, parental and familial support, developmentally and culturally appropriate sex and contraceptive education (including abstinence), and recreation (for example, sports, drama, and art activities) to promote self-esteem and appropriate emotional outlets. Supportive services for teens and their families also need to be provided after teens become parents. Based on research indicating that comprehensive sex education is more effective than abstinence-only education at reducing the rates of teen pregnancy and STIs, many of the George W. Bush administrations funding and other priorities favoring abstinence-only programs were reversed after he left office. The Obama Administration, while still funding abstinence-only programs, shifted more than $114 million to programs that could show they were effective in reducing STIs and unplanned pregnancy. There is a shift back to abstinence-only programs with the current conservative administration. That is not to say that comprehensive sex education programs solve all problems related to teen pregnancy. Indeed, they have been criticized for being too limited and shortsighted. Some experts point out that even if accurate information is available at home or at school, teens are likely to turn to peers or the Internet first for information. However, information from peer sources and some sites on the Internet, such as pornography sites, can be unreliable and even incorrect; this information tends to be replete with myths, stereotypes, and misinformation about sex and contraception and increases the likelihood that teens will have sexual intercourse. Conversely, some digital media can offer useful, accurate, and confidential sources for information. This may be particularly important for LGBTQ teens whose needs and concerns may be left out of traditional sex education content. Another problem is that even if teens have access to contraceptives, they may be made to feel guilty about using contraception. Thus, comprehensive education programs need to consider these issues when developing and providing sex education curricula. Pregnancy and motherhoodparticularly from a stigmatized standpoint such as young, old, addict, disabled, or racialized Otherrenders women visible and vulnerable to public and institutional surveillance (Vinson, p. 104). We as women must be able to teach our girls to be proud of their bodies, and to instill pride in themselves and all the great powers they have outwardly and inwardly, by just being girls and women. Classmates How was sex education in your school, growing up? Donna References: Rogers, A. T. (2019). Human behavior in the social environment: Perspectives on development and the life course (5th ed.). Routledge. Vinson, J. (2017). Embodying the problem: The persuasive power of the teen mother. Rutgers University Press.
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