SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion Essay

SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview The Journal of Social Psychology ISSN: 0022-4545 (Print) 1940-1183 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vsoc20 Social Psychology of Chinese Aggression G. D. Rastogi To cite this article: G. D. Rastogi (1966) Social Psychology of Chinese Aggression, The Journal of Social Psychology, 68:1, 49-55, DOI: 10.1080/00224545.1966.9919665 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1966.9919665 Published online: 01 Jul 2010. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 10 View related articles Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=vsoc20 T h e Journal of Social Psychology, 1966, 68, 49-55. S O C I A L PSYCHOLOGY OF C H I N E S E A G G R E S S I O N * Department of Plychology, Gorakhjmr University, Gorakhpur, India G. D. RASTOGI A. INTRODUCTION Aggression is a complex problem and its causes may be many and varied. A nation initiating aggression against another may be doing so because of a number of competing national interests-econornic, political, and cultural, or because of conflicting ideologies. A nation might take to aggression to seek avenues for basic necessities or for obtaining some source to add to the national comforts and luxuries. T h e words of Socrates are very true in this respect. H e wrote Iong ago: . . , I suspect that many will not be satisfied with the simpler way of life. They will be for adding sofas and tables and other furniture. We must go beyond the necessaries of which I was a t first speaking, such Then we must enlarge our borders; as houses and clothes and shoes. . for the original healthy State is no longer sufficient. And the country which was enough to support the original inhabitants will be too small Then a slice of our neighbor’s land will be now, and not enough. wanted by us for pasture and tillage, and they want a slice of ours, if like ourselves, they exceed the limit of necessity, and give themselves up to the unlimited accumulation of wealth (8, p. 636). … .. … According to Socrates, therefore, the economic factor is of great importancc Nationals willing to lead a luxurious life feel the necessity of expanding theii borders. T h i s leads to aggression against the neighboring countries. Besides the pecuniary aspect of competitiveness, aggressions are made to obtain prestige and leadership. T h e Chinese infiltration in 1959 and a massive military action in 1962 seem to have been motivated by economic, prestige, and ideological factors. Since the chief concern in this article is to bring out the social-psychological factors of Chinese aggression, the varied causes of it shall not be explored. Moreover, war is a social institution and has its roots in many of the social structures of the past; enumeration of the psychological factors alone would not explain the Chinese aggression. SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion T h e question btfore us today is: Should we consider aggression necessary? Received in the Editorial Office, Provincetown, Massachusetts, on July 6, 1963. Publication delayed for technical reasons. Copyright 1966, by T h e Journal Press. 49 ’ 50 J O U R N A L OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY B. AGGRESSION Is NOT INEVITABLE It is a common belief that aggression is inevitable. T h e belief has arisen for three reasons: first, aggression is a “divine” institution; second, it is universal; third, human nature is unchangeable ( 3 , pp. 16-17). Alix Strachey (9) was of the view that fighting was something indigenous to man, something that was implanted in the human mind. William James ( 2 ) seems to have thought along the same lines as he said, “ W e inherit the warlike type.” It has also been expressed by a few that man has inherited a nervous system responsive to warlike conditions. For instance, Niebuhr and Eddy write that the seat of evil is the self and the quality of evil can be defined in terms of pride.’ Freud thought that there was an unconscious force within the individual for whose outlet individuals resort to war. Freud’s postulation of the Thanatos, the death instinct, as against Eros, the impulse of love and life, has been expressed in these words : An important derivative of the death instinct is the aggressive drive. Aggressiveness is self destruction turned outward against substitute objects. A person fights with other people and is destructive because his death wish is blocked by the forces of the life instincts and by other obstacles in his personality which counteract the death instincts (1, p. 40). These assertions have hardly any support of sound evidence. T h e idea of unchangeability of human nature is obsolete as it is based on the old instinct theory. Fighting today is believed to be learned rather than instinctive. T h e findings of anthropologists would bear testimony to this. Ashoka, as early as 260 B.C., having conquered the Kalingas, expressed profound remorse and sorrow over his success because his victory had meant the slaughtering of numberless persons. Ashoka decried his faith in this method. T h i s does not mean that India has completely followed the edicts of Ashoka. But there has been a strong belief in the Indian people that peaceful adjustment is always desirable. Fighting, nevertheless, is not a primary drive like hunger, thirst or sex. T h e analysis of the behavior of children or human groups would dissuade us from postulating an instinct of aggressiveness. As expressed earlier, aggression or warfare is a complicated social institution based on certain drives and training. Every country trains its children to love the country and national heroes. W e learn to speak highly of our own cultural ideals, values, and policies ; and we are taught to look down upon the ideals, values, and policies of other cultures. In India, after the declaration of emergency, we find that such 1 “It is the human effort to make our partial values absolute which is always the final human life; and it always results in the most bloody of human conflicts” (7, p. 1 6 ) . G . D. RASTOGI 51 organizations as A.C.C. and N.C.C. are being formed to an extraordinary degree. Such organizations help build up nationalistic tendencies and favorable attitudes towards’war. Social and political conditions are also the strong determinants of aggression. I n India, children born in feudal societies were instilled with the idea that honor of the family, group, and state was supreme and that killing o r being killed should be preferred to loss of honor. T h e martial races like Rajputs and Sikhs are well known for courage and valor. A man surrendering to force and exigencies of others was considered a coward. But the preaching of Buddha and Gandhi’s practice of nonviolent resistance caused a change in the social norm. It was because of this change that India resorted to nonviolent techniques in ousting the British.SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion But once again, because of Chinese incursion and the recent infiltration of Pakistani forces into the Indian frontiers, the country’s honor and prestige are at stake and the nation has stood as one man to defend its honor. Every endeavor is being made by the political leaders to reach the highest pitch of efficiency. Compulsory military training is being imparted to all students going to universities and colleges. So there is again a change in the social norm. A people having faith in ahimsa have been compelled to take to arms. T h i s is in no way contrary to Indian tradition and culture. Mahatma Gandhi, defining the relations of national autonomy and international order, warned: “ M y idea of nationalism is that my country may become free, that if need be the whole of the country may die, so that she may live.” T o make up for the military lag and to instill faith in the changing social norm, propaganda technique has to be used. C. USINGPROPAGANDA Propaganda machinery is generally geared to influence the attitudes and opinions of others ( 5 ) . According to Lineberger : Propaganda consists of the planned use of any form of public or massproduced communication designed to effect the minds and emotions of a given truth for a specific purpose, whether military, economic or political (6, P. 39). Under w a r or emergency situations all information is meted out with the strictest censorship so that the nation and outside people receive only what the national leaders desire to give them. T h e mass media-niz., the radio and press, as well as public meetings, free discussions, and action of citizens -go through tight censorship. These media of communication are used to bolster up the morale, output, and courage of the countrymen on the one 52 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY hand and to demoralize, decrease the. output, and discourage the aggressive nation on the other. As Kimball Young (10, p. 524) put it: T h e chief aims of w a r time propaganda a r e 1) to mobilize and direct aggression and hatred against the enemy and to undermine and destroy his morale; 2) to build up and preserve the fighting spirit of one’s own country; 3) to develop and preserve the friendship of one’s allies; 4 ) to foster the friendship of neutrals and, if possible, enlist their active aupport a n d cooperation in the war. Since the aggression, China is spending large sums of money to justify its action to keep up the morale of its people and to break down the morale of the Indian people and their fighting soldiers. T o make its propaganda effective, China has not even spared Indian war prisoners. Pakistan is also spending vast sums of money on propaganda. T h e menace of China and Pakistan has assumed the form of a disturbing specter which is affecting adversely the huge development plans, as India not only has to undo the evil effects of propaganda by both nations but also to make its defenses strong. It must be remembered that no propaganda can be effective unless it meets the needs of the common people, who are willing to accept it for the very reason that it does fall in line with their needs. W e well remember the British days when, in spite of tight censorship by the government, all nationalists throughout India acted in one manner. Even when the leaders were sent behind prison bars, the Indian solidarity was not disrupted. T h e reason behind this unity was that the entire citizenry, whether residents of the villages or of the cities, felt a strong need for swaraj. They had a strong will that the British must quit India. Today, in the face of Chinese aggression, India once again stands united as the entire nation feels that swaraj has to be defended with all might. O u r defense needs should, therefore, be given wide publicity throughout the country. As expressed by M r . Chavan, India’s Defense Minister, there is a need to make defense efforts in four directions: First w e have to have the expansion of the army. Secondly, there has to be the necessary expansion and modernization of the air force. Thirdly, there will have to be a strong basis of production, taking into consideration the new capacity of consumption that w e a r e creating in the defense sector. Fourthly, the ancillary facilities like communications and transport have to be expanded.* T o meet the double threat of China and Pakistan, India has to depend on her own resources and, with this end in view, the defense budget has to be 2 Y. B. Chavan. I n Pioneer (Lucknow daily newspaper), April 10, 1963, page 4. G. D. RASTOCI 53 geared up considerably. SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion I n addition to this, India needs support morally and materially from the West or from Moscow and the East European countries. D. BUILDINGMORALR T h e problem of morale also exists in such aggressions. I n modern warfare morale has to be maintained not only among soldiers but among those working in the fields, factories, offices, and universities. Propaganda activities have to be carried out on three fronts: ( a ) mobilizing hatred against the enemy among the civilian population at home, (6) preserving the friendship of citizens of neutral nations and of allies, and ( c ) demoralizing both the civilian populations and the armed forces of enemy countries. India is a democratic and not a totalitarian country. It believes in the principlts of peaceful coexistence, universal brotherhood, and love. I n spite of its faith in these principles, if any country wages war against it, the paramount duty of the nation at large is to defend itself. W e do not seek to breed hatred against any nation or the national leaders of that nation. But in such circumstances as the Chinese aggression or Pakistan’s warlike designs we are left with no option but to mobilize hatred against such political-expansionist ideologiek and against those leaders who prosecute them. W e have to stress the need of keeping up the national solidarity and existence on the one hand and to spread hatred against the individual leaders and their ideologies on the other because individual and ideological hatreds are easy to spread. T h e second front on which propaganda activities have to be directed is the winning of friendship with as many nations as possible. India’s neutrality and nonalignment with any of the power blocs as well as its outspokenness withregard to the unjust policies of both major blocs have won it a singular prestige among the nations of the world. W e have received material as well as moral cooperation against Chinese aggression from as many as 70 countries. This is really significant and creditable and has raised the morale of the Indian people. O n the third front, propaganda has to be so directed as to demoralize the civilian population and the armed forces of the enemy country. This is sometimes done by pressing into operation airplanes for dropping leaflets in the enemy country. A barrage of foreign language broadcasts might also help in effecting it. E. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONING It might also be helpful to use the technique of conditioned response by way of using; disagreeable words for the Chinese. For instance we may say that 54 J O U R N A L OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Chinese are “expansionists,” “brutal,” and “killers.” T h i s technique can be best employed if one has a thorough grounding in the culture of the enemy country. A word may be said about counteraffecting the enemy propaganda. T h e propaganda technique of the enemy country should be exposed. T o achieve it, new beliefs and attitudes should be induced. T h i s will help in creating confusion and doubt about the veracity of the statements made by the propagating nation. I n such a situation there is a chance for national decision. T o counteraff ect the malpropaganda by China or Pakistan, the information services must be geared to reach the people, and people should be encouraged to form associations where they can meet weekly or fortnightly to have discussions about current problems. T h i s would keep all well informed and make propaganda ineffective. F. STRENGTHENING THE DEFENSIVE ATTITUDE T h e heavy burden of developing a defense attitude falls on the shoulders of the top leaders of the country.SOC 2109 University of Ottawa Social Psychology and Everyday Life Discussion They should try to inculcate the solemn feeling of a religious war among all concerned; the leaders should try to emphasize that the aggressive country is unjust, unreasonable, and has engaged itself in an ignoble fight. India has always valued truth and nonviolence, but in a war situation the first casualties are truth and nonviolence. T h e need of the hour is to instill confidence in military men as well as civilians about our strength and the justness of our cause. A dual faith-faith in the cause and faith in the defense steps-would prepare the country militarily and morally. T o strengthen the defense attitude] we should derive inspiration from our rich traditions. W e need training and indoctrination to cut through the aggression] come what may. W e should constantly remind our fighting forces of .the famous Rajput story according to which the wife refused to recognize her husband when she learnt that he had run away from the battlefield. T h e military people have to learn to put up with certain deprivations of life. Regarding Chinese aggression, we should always remember the teachings of Bhagwad Gita: When a man is full of aggressive tendencies he becomes deluded, and loses sense of reality. When a man is deluded he forgets himself, he is unable to recall who he is and what he is doing; he is no longer his normal self. When he loses-his memory, he loses the ideals for which he stands, social norms that he has internalized, all sense of what is right and what is wrong; his action will have no touch with real$y, it will be completely Id-directed. T h e ruin of reason and discrimination spells 55 G . D. RASTOGI utter destruction. None can save a person who has thus lost control over himself ( 4 ) . T h i s is how w e can view China and her future. G. CONCLUSION A word of caution may be raised lest w e become complacent. W e have to develop the resources of the country to such a high level that it becomes invulnerable. O u r military strength should be raised to a degree where the aggressors will feel deterred. So, w e as a nation have a double task to perform. First, we have to maintain our own democratic way of life and should not allow any country to disrupt it and, second, w e should increase cur military strength so that w e are neither intimidated nor blackmailed by aggressor governments. REFERENCES 1. 2. HALL,C. S., & LINDZEY, G. Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley, 1960. JAMES, W. T h e moral equivalent of war. In Memories and Sfudies. New York: 3. 4. KREHBIEL, E. Nationalism, W a r and Society. New York: Macmillan. 1916. KUPVUSWAMY, B. Bhagwad Gita and mental health. 1. All India I n s f . Meni. 5. 6. LASSWELL, C. H. Propaganda Technique in the W a r . New York: Knopf, 1927. LINEBERGER, P. M. A. Psychological Warfare. Washington,-D.C.: Infantry Journal 7. 8. NIEBUHR, R., & EDDY,S. Doom and Dawn. New York: Eddy & Page, Longmans, Green, 1912. Pp. 262-272. Healfh (Bangalore), 1959, 2 (No. 1 ) . Press, 1948. 1963. PLATO. T h e Republic. In B. Jowett (translator), The Dialogues of Plafo. New York: Random House, 1937. A. T h e Unconscious Motives of W a r . London: Allen & Unwin, 1957. 9. STRACHEY, 10. YOUNG, K. Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1948. Department of Psychology Gorakhpur Uniwersity Gorakhpur, India … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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