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There are 2 discussion questions I require you to write each question needs to be a minimum of 250 words. After you write the discussion question. You need to write replies to 4 peer posts in all 100 words each. And you must give a substantial response using a scholarly resource.   Please use assigned readings as well: In the Sue and Sue text, Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, read the following: Chapter 7, “Barriers to Multicultural Counseling and Therapy: Individual and Family Perspectives.” Chapter 8, “Communication Styles and Its Impact on Counseling and Psychotherapy.” Chapter 9, “Multicultural Evidence-Based Practice.”   Unit 3 Discussion 1 Table 8.1 in Chapter 8 of the Sue and Sue text (linked in Resources) presents various communication style differences across American Indians, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Whites, and African Americans. Such a listing is often hazardous to present since it can reinforce stereotypes, rather than serve as a starting point for discovering how individuals might vary among themselves.   Study the table carefully and then reflect on your own experiences with members of each of the groups listed. You may not have much experience with certain groups and that may be instructive to you about which groups you need to have more contact with over time.   As you think about members of the groups with whom you have had contact, consider the following questions within your post:   Do the characteristics listed hold true for all the people you have thought about? Do some of these people not fit the characteristics? If so, what factors do you think contribute to them being different from what the table lists? How might you balance the central tendency of the group discussed, with the simultaneous inherent variability of those same groups? How might you determine whether a particular individual has a more variable or central tendency?   Unit 3 Discussion 1 Peer Reply needed to Myranda To be honest I’ve had quite a bit of experience with Whites and African Americans. I’ve had minimal experience with Hispanics and Asian Americans, and not much with Native Americans. I can speak to the fact that Whites tend to be quite loud. My husband is originally from Africa and has made quite a few comments about how loud my family can be (we’re all White). He’s also noted that White people tend to be quite loud. After having this pointed out, I have noticed that we tend to be very loud and straight forward. I do see how white people tend to nod their head a lot, and sometimes I feel like it’s to show that we’re listening, even when we aren’t. And the eye contact definitely seems to be on point. I feel likes it’s been ingrained that if you’re not making eye contact then you’re not listening or pay attention. Which is something that you hear quite a few white people use an excuse to say why other races are not as “trustworthy”. Obviously not a true thing because eye contact can be cultural.   The African Americans that I have spoken to all seem to speak with more emotion and power in their voices, which always has made me want to focus in and listen more. I don’t really feel like I can speak to the eye contact as I’m not sure how universal that is. I’m not sure how accurate the interrupting is, but there is quite a bit of turn taking and exchange within conversation, and the expectation to answer and not simply just nod your head and say “mhmm”. Conversation seems to be less stilted and awkward, and tends to flow because you are expected to dialogue. I have found that I am uncomfortable with the amount of eye contact made when being spoken to.       I have noticed that Asian Americans tend to speak softer and hold deference to those who are older or of a higher status. I’m not really sure if I’ve noticed these differences in those who are Hispanic. I do believe though that I should probably pay more attention when conversing with anyone who is of a different ethnicity. And in general this shows me that even though I think I’ve had cultural exposure, I don’t have as much as I thought I did.   Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.   Unit 3 Discussion 1 reply needed to Franklin According to Sue and Sue (2016), communication styles go beyond the content of what is said, and differences are most noticed in nonverbal communication. Further, nonverbal communication often occurs outside of our level of awareness and is linked to stereotypes of culturally diverse groups. Racial minority groups often possess unique communication styles present barriers to mental health practice (Sue & Sue, 2016).   Sue and Sue (2016) describe communication style differences between American Indians, Asian Americans and Hispanics, Whites, and African Americans. The different communication styles present are accurate to an extent based on my experiences. However, some of my experiences do not fit the presented characteristics, such as when I visit impoverished areas.   The best way to balance the central tendency of a group with simultaneous variability is to develop a keen understanding of one’s biases and increasing knowledge of the communication styles of other cultural groups. According to Sue and Sue (2016), one of the major barriers to effective understanding is the assumption that different cultural groups operate according to identical speech and communication groups. Further, differences in communication styles from the majority is often associated with inferiority and other value judgments, which become associated with stereotypes, such as being prone to violence and crime (Sue & Sue, 2016). For example, African American styles are often animated, heated, interpersonal, and confrontational.    I heard from other groups that African Americans are argumentative; however, this could be more of misinterpretation of Black communication styles. African Americans communicate in a more animated fashion, with greater bodily movements and a tendency to test ideas (Sue & Sue, 2016), which can be misinterpreted as being hostile and angry.   References   Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.     Unit 3 Discussion 2 Case Example At the beginning of Chapter 8 in your textbook (linked in Resources), the case of Elena Martinez is presented. Analyze this case using the authors’ framework for promoting multicultural counseling and information from the readings regarding cultural values and goals. Outline an approach to working with this client. Provide specific examples of how you might adapt the cited techniques and strategies or any new strategies you might employ.     Unit 3 Discussion 2 reply needed to Mina Looking at Sue & Sue (2015) case of Mr. Henry Chang who is an 85-year-old first-generation Chinese American, who has recently become a widow. Mr. Chang would regularly visit his doctor but has been having difficulty taking his medication, his physician suggested he meets with a psychologist, however he only attended after the 3rd appointment, and was not responsive to the psychologist’s questions. His session with the psychologists did not go well, and he did not benefit. Upon meeting his social worker Mr. Chang was more open and felt more respected by the social worker.   Mr. Chang’s psychologist was not flexible in her culturally appropriate counseling, Mr. Chang felt as if he was being forced to share his feelings, and that may have made it seem more humiliating experience, there was a difference in communication style that was influenced by Mr. Chang’s culture that the psychologist was not able to utilize. Mr. Chang’s social worker discussed his case at a more indirect manner that by asking him questions about her aging parents she is speaking to him about aging and emotional matters experience by Mr. Chang (Sue & Sue 2015).   In Mr. Chang’s case it is important to approach the situation at a problem-solving type. Most elderly Asian parents prefer to spend their elderly years with their family  (Sue & Sue, 2015), this would be addressed with Mr. Chang and his family to address how to better care for himself and provide the social activity he has been disconnected to and lesion the social isolation, by enlisting him to attend church and help him be the socially active person he was in the past. There is stigma within cultures about seeking mental health, it is a possibility that Mr. Chang was not as open about his feelings to the psychologist because of the stigma that is held that seeking for mental health means that you are crazy. Among traditional Asian groups it is frond upon to disclose family problems, and that is seen as something that is shameful and would bring dishonor to the family. It is also important to note that the social worker was closer to Mr. Chang’s age and better understood his situation, than the psychologist who was much younger. It is highly important to conduct a suicide assessment in Mr. Chang’s case, as he began to express those emotions, and he is at a higher risk of suicide, as he is a recent widow and his family is far from him, and he has not been social active, and not taking care of his own health. It is also important to know and understand the different communication styles that may influence individuals based on their culture. Whether it is nonverbal communication, proxemics, kinesics, or paralanguage. In Mr. Chang’s case he benefited more from the subtle indirect communication that the social worker provided (Sue & Sue, 2015).     References   Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2015). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice.     Unit 3 Discussion 2 reply needed to Kelli   The purpose of this discussion is to analyze the case Henry Chang using Sue and Sue’s framework for promoting multicultural counseling and other information from the course’s readings.  Mr. Chang is an older man who is struggling with a number of symptoms, difficulty eating and sleep, headaches, loss of interest in his typical activities, and trouble digesting. Mr. Chang recently lost his wife and feared burdening his children and was referred to therapy from his doctor.   Mr. Chang needs therapy that meets his needs and considers his race, culture, and age.  Originally, his therapist approached him from a very Wester-European perspective, and she was no considerate of the previously listed factors.  In general, Asian cultures are hesitant to discuss mental health (Sue, n.d.). There are a number of taboos that are important to overcome with Mr. Change. The age difference between Mr. Change and myself also needs to be considered.               According to Sue and Sue (2016), there are many central tendencies to the Asian American culture. Asian American often speak softly, avoid eye contact when listening or speaking, have a mild delay, and can be low-keyed or indirect.  Mr. Chang’s original therapist made some critical mistakes that need to be fixed.  She did not consider these communication styles, and she did not consider the fact that often times in Asian cultures it is considered disrespectful to share intimate details of family and to put your needs above the needs of the family (Sue, n.d.). The therapeutic alliance is more important than ever to build, and it is important to be patient with Mr. Chang. Additionally, Mr. Chang needs actionable plans for how to address some of his symptoms.  People of Asian descent tend to have effective results when they focus on physical symptoms rather than mental health status, and this is important to consider throughout the process of therapy.   References   Greene, B. (n.d.). Power and Diversity. Retrieved from http://media.capella.edu   /CourseMedia/PSY7540/GuestSpeakerPresentations/GreeneUnit1/multi-audio.asp   Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2015). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons P&T. VitalBook file.

 

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