PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion

PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Home > Humanities > PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion Question Description I need support with this Psychology question so I can learn better. For each module you will participate in one graded discussion. In order to give you some flexibility and try to keep you as engaged as possible, I will provide you with multiple prompts. You need only respond to all prompts. To accommodate the Thanksgiving holiday, your initial response to one of these prompts (worth 2 of 4 points) is due by 11:59 PM on Monday, 11/30. 1. Freud is always a controversial figure. What do you think of his theories. Do you think we should bother studying him any more? Why or why not? To encourage comments and meaningful discussion, include addition questions that have been raised for you following learning more about Freud and the neo-Freudians that you would be interested in discussing as well. Be sure to cite specific paraphrased content from your text and/or the modules to support your post. 2. Do you think there is a stigma or prejudice against those with psychological disorders? Why or why not? To encourage comments and meaningful discussion, include addition questions that have been raised for you following learning more about these theories that you would be interested in discussing as well. Be sure to cite specific paraphrased content from your text and/or the modules to support your post. 3. What is one preconception you had on either personality psychology concepts or psychological disorders and how has it been changed? Be sure to cite specific paraphrased content from your text and/or the modules to support your post. To encourage comments and meaningful discussion, include addition questions that have been raised for you following learning more about this area that you would be interested in discussing as well. Submission Details Each post (original and response) should be approximately 2 paragraphs long. You should be incorporating what you have learned in this module that supports your responses or why you disagree with a concept as it is discussed in your readings for this module. You should be citing as is appropriate. IMPORTANT NOTE: Please use in text citation, if you are going to paraphrase something from the attached documents please use this citation (Janowsky, 2020)PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion Unformatted Attachment Preview Psychoanalytic Perspective Sigmund Freud, the founder of the psychoanalytic perspective, believed that who we are is a function of our unconscious motivations and conflicts (Myers & DeWall, 2018). Many of his theories (such as the psychosexual stages of development) are controversial and a little . . . out-there. However, Freud had a profound influence on the field of psychology and is still considered by many to be relevant today. Rorschach and Freudians: Crash Course Psychology #21 (Links to an external site.) The Unconscious Mind According to Freud, the mind is like an iceberg: there is very little we see and the most interesting parts are underwater. Specifically, Freud discussed three depths, if you will: • • • Conscious: what we are aware of (i.e., what is above the water), Preconscious: like memory, this is information we are not currently thinking about but are able to access, Unconscious: where we store thoughts, feelings, and desires that we view as unacceptable or inappropriate. Accessing the Unconscious Part of being “healthy” to Freud was being able to bring these unconscious memories into our conscious minds. How can we do that? How can these memories come into our awareness? You may actually have some experience: • Have you ever said something you didn’t mean to say? Have you ever called your new significant other by an ex’s name? According to psychoanalysts, this faux pas, also known as a Freudian slip, is believed to reflect an individual’s unconscious thoughts or desires. Freud believed that the more upsetting the • thought or memory, the deeper these memories become repressed in our unconscious (recall this section from Chapter 8 of your book). How do we know what these repressed memories are? Freud recommends using free association. How does free association work? Well, when I say “Polar Bear”• what’s the first word to come to mind? Perhaps “white,” “fuzzy,”• “scary,” “Sea World.” That’s pretty much it! You can watch a humorous example of this from Friends below. While we will not have time to go through the therapy chapter (Chapter 16) this semester there are a lot of links between personality theories and therapy types. To that end, I will make some of those connections in my notes. For example, below is a video showing a mock-psychoanalytic therapy session. In this video you will see some of the above mentioned tools utilized. Free Association Examples Pop Culture Reference: Friends Friends-Answer to the questions as fast as you can (Links to an external site.) Mock Psychoanalysis Session Psychoanalytic Therapy Session (Links to an external site.) Assessing the Unconscious Let’s start with some examples. When you look at the image to the left, what do you see? Now look at the image on the right. What do you see? These are examples of a variety of widely used assessment tools known as projective tests. These tests present ambiguous stimuli for the patient to describe. The idea is that, since the images are ambiguous, the patient will “project” their feelings onto the image (see defense mechanisms below). Myers and DeWall (2018) discusses the Thematic Apperception Test in which the patient is asked to make a story based on an ambiguous picture as well as the most famous projective test, the Rorschach inkblot test. This test was designed by dropping ink on a piece of paper and folding it in half. Seriously. What you see in the image is supposedly indicative of your unconscious. Unfortunately, there are a variety of problems with projective tests and they should only be used as one part of a diagnostic assessment battery or as an icebreaker. Personality Structure Freud mapped his own personality structure onto this “iceberg” as follows: • • • the id is the emotional, primitive core of your mind. Operating on the pleasure principle this part of the mind wants whatever it wants (i.e., finds pleasurable) immediately; no matter how unrealistic the desire might be. Freud believed that the id is the source of our aggressive/self-destructive instincts (thanatos) and our sex/pleasure instinct (libido). the ego is the rational part of your mind. Operating on the reality principle, it tries to mediate what the id wants, what the superego says is morally correct, and realistic constraints. the superego is the Jiminy Cricket of your mind; your conscience. It tells you what is right and wrong. Let’s put this in context. Imagine that it is Friday night and your friends are asking you to a movie, you have no money and don’t get paid until the following week. You walk into the kitchen of your apartment and notice that your roommate has left her purse unattended on the kitchen table. You peer into her purse and see a wad of $20 bills. • • • Your id the little devil sitting on your right shoulder, says to take the money, your roommate will never notice and you should go have a great time with your friends. Your super-ego, the little angel sitting on your left shoulder, reminds you that it is morally wrong to steal. You really want to go to that movie, but you know it is wrong to steal. How can both of these needs be satisfied? That’s where the ego comes in to negotiation between your devil id and your angel super-ego. An end result might be that you ask one of your friends to loan you money and pay them back when you get your paycheck. Personality Development According to Freud, the id is present and we are driven by our libido. Think about it. Babies are all id. They want what makes them feel good (pacifier, cuddles, food, dry diaper, etc.) and they do not care what their parents want (sleep). He argued that our libido, and where that energy is fixated in the body, drives our personality development. Because the focus is on libido, these are called the psychosexual stages of development. Here’s the basics of how it works. At different times in our lives, we find pleasure, frustration, or both, in different areas of the body called erroneous zones. As you can see in the infographic on the left (or click here for a larger version), we start out in the oral phase. Thinking on this, it should make some sense to you. Babies are all about what they can put in their mouths (for example, think about the word “pacifier” – it is literally meant to pacify babies). We then move into the anal stage at around 18 months. The libidinal energy is now focused on the anas. Again, thinking on this, what is happening in their lives at this point? Potty training! They get a great deal of pleasure from using the potty but may also be frustrated as they work through the process. Around 3 years of age we enter the phallic stage where the erogenous zone of interest is the genitals. This is a time that children begin to notice differences in their bodies compared to others and they become particularly interested in their genitals. This is the famous stage in which you hear about penis envy and the Oedipal Complex. At around 7, children enter the latent stage which is basically a time of growth not involving the libido. Here is when you start seeing kids playing with other children of the same sex and identifying with the same sex parent. But once you hit puberty, you enter the last stage of development: the genital stage. Like the phallic stage, the libido in genital stage is focused on the genitals but now they are interested in partners other than their parents! You should read about these stages in your book and using the infographic. Be prepared to answer questions about the order of these stages and what happens in each (HINT: As with chapter 5 on development, you are not responsible for age ranges here). What happens if you do not properly complete a stage? According to Freud, if any of these stages are not completed properly, the child can develop a fixation on the in-completed stage. For example, a child who is weaned too early may have an oral fixation which leads to adult habits such as nail biting, chewing on pencils. PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion Those who had an unpleasant toilet training experience, may develop an anal fixation resulting in controlling behaviors as an adult (think Monica (played by Courtney Cox) and her obsession with cleanliness on Friends. (Links to an external site.) Defense Mechanisms The ego has a very difficult job; it is constantly required to settle disputes between the id and super-ego. As a result, the ego redirects anxiety and distorts reality to protect itself from feeling unsettled. This describes what is known by Freud as defense mechanisms. Your book outlines 6 different defense mechanisms (repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, and denial). You should be prepared to answer some very applied questions on these. To save you from redundant reading I will not go into detail on these beyond the PPT video below. As an FYI, it has some practice items in it. Play media comment.this is a media comment Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists Even though Freud’s theories are controversial, he still, even to this day, has many followers. Some, however, had issues with some of Freud’s core ideas and broke into separate camps. More specifically, these people tended to agree with Freud’s ideas on things like the unconscious, the importance of childhood in shaping adult personality, and issues of anxiety and defense mechanisms. They disagreed, however, with Freud on other issues such as the importance he placed on sex and aggression. Freud’s followers are known as Neo-Freudians. Your book speaks specifically about Karen Horney, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung. One you may have heard of is Jung and his ideas on the collective unconscious; the idea that we all have a shared memory bank that dates back to the days of our ancestors. What it doesn’t mention is Jung’s ideas about personality types. Instead of talking about traits (which we’ll get to soon) Jung argued that we have personality types based on how introverted/extraverted we are (he called these dimensions attitudes) and where we fall on 4 other personality functions (thinking (logic), feeling (how we value different ideas or events), sensing (how we perceive sensory impulses), and intuiting (how we interpret what is beyond our consciousness senses). You don’t need to know too much about this other than to know that your applied assignment for this Module is to take a questionnaire based, in part, on these ideas.PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion The most popular test that developed from this idea is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator which is discussed in the trait section of this chapter. You may have taken this test at some point (or something like it). I will mention here that, while it is popular, psychologists aren’t always excited about this test because of its lack of scientific/research backing. Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Although Freud’s theories might seem outlandish (and some of them, probably are) it is important to remember that he did not have access to the scientific advances and knowledge we have today. Cut the man some slack! However, some have issues with his ideas. Your book spends some time going through this in more detail but here are some highlights of the controversy. Also, click here (Links to an external site.) to read a more recent article (2006) in Newsweek on this very issue. • • Since Freud’s day, the field has moved away from a focus on childhood toward an emphasis on development throughout the life-span. Recent research has disproved many of Freud’s theories.PSY 2012 University of Florida Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Discussion Although most of the general population assumes Freud was correct about repression, researchers remain skeptical (recall testimony issues outlined in in Module 5). While Freud’s theory would support a negative correlation between stress and memory, research has demonstrated increases in memory with increased stress. • Freud was right that we do have unconscious process, humans tend to operate on auto-pilot more than we realize. However, the content of our unconscious is not limited to emotional or embarrassing thoughts. Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders are characterized by feelings of continuous anxiety and/or maladaptive behaviors geared at reducing this anxiety. Check out the following video to give you a quick preview on these disorders (Video length: 11 minutes, 31 seconds): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX7jnVXXG5o (Links to an external site.) Your book discusses several different disorders in this sections: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorders, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Be sure to read each of these sections carefully. For my part, I am going to go over the symptoms associated with GAD, OCD, and PTSD. I suggest you read this over first to get a general sense of the disorder and then read the book to get a firmer understanding of anxiety disorders in general and each disorder in particular. • HINT: As I’m sure you can guess, you should expect applied questions on your quiz in which I describe someone’s symptoms and you tell me which disorder they have. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by at least 6 months of persistent and excessive worry. This worry is accompanied by at least 3 other symptoms from the following list: • • • • • • restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, disturbed sleep People with this disorder are not worried about anything specific (they typically say they are worried about everyday life issues like job pressure, finances, health of family members, etc.). Their symptoms are not caused by medication, drug abuse, or any other medical condition. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OC D) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming or cause marked distress or significant impairment. A good example is Jack Nicholson’s performance in As Good As It Gets. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Y8EyIY-_I0 (Links to an external site.) More specifically: • • Obsessions are persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate (thereby causing anxiety). Examples are concerns about germ contamination, doubts (did I lock the door), need for order (is everything in its spot), etc. Now understand this is not just a concern that your roommate is sick and you are going to catch their cold. This is taken to an extreme (like you see in the video below). Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts done to reduce or prevent stress (vs. for gratification or pleasure). Examples would be hand washing, checking doors, counting, repeating words, etc. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) generally impacts veterans and those who have survived accidents, assaults, and other disasters. It is characterized by nightmares, intrusive memories, withdrawal, anxiety, and insomnia. You can read about this disorder in your book but you may also find it interesting to know the groundbreaking work being done in this area here at UCF in an organization called UCF Restores (Links to an external site.). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IY8xsx1Csa4 (Links to an external site.) Self-Test • • Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of _____. Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from _____. Answers • • Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a phobia. Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Generally speaking, mood disorders are marked by emotional extremes. Your book discusses major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. It also spends time discussing suicide and self-injury. For my part, I am going to distinguish between major depressive disorder, which your book covers in detail, and persistent depressive disorder which is mentioned only briefly. To get started, though, check out the following video and take some notes (Video length: 9 minutes, 59 seconds) : Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #30 (Links to an external site.) Major Depressive Disorder Although phobias are more common, depression is usually called the “common cold” of psychological disorders because it is the major reason people seek therapy. A diagnosis of major depressive disorder is given when a person has experienced two or more weeks of at least five of the following symptoms: • • loss of interest in others and pleasurable activities change of weight (some people gain while others lose) • • • • • change in sleep patterns (some sleep all the time, others not at all) decreased energy feelings of worthlessness or guilt difficulty thinking, concentrating, and making decisions, recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation, plans, or attempts. Watch this video of 60 Minutes Mike Wallace discussing his experience with depression. Mike Wallace on Depression (Healthy Minds Series) (Links to an external site.) Persistent Depressive Disorder Persistent depressive disorder, formerly known as dysthymia, is a milder mood disorder. The major feature here is a chronically depressed mood that occurs more days than not. While this is milder than major depressive disorder, this is longer lasting. During a two year period, any symptom free interval cannot last longer than 2 months. Most complain of being “down in the dumps” and have at least two of the following additional symptoms: • • • • • change of appetite (some lose their appetite and other overeat) change in sleep patterns (some sleep all the time, others not at all) low energy or fatigue low self-esteem and self-criticism poor concentration and problems with decision making. Self-Test • • Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of _____. Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a(n) _____ perspective. Answers • • Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of mania. Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a(n) social-cognitive perspective. Schizophrenia, Dissociative Disorders, and Personality Disorders In this, the last content page of the semester, we are going to touch on three last disorders: schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, and personality disorders. 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