[SOLVED] Organizing and Paying for American Education
Provide a 2 pages analysis while answering the following question: Organizing and Paying for American Education. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. [Your full March 3, Organizing and Paying for American Education Structure Researchers suggestthat American education system is basically chaotic because it is huge and diverse. This image is more perceived by people from other countries. The American education system can be typified by its great magnitude, organizational constitution, noticeable decentralization, and mounting diversity. America being one of the largest educational systems worldwide consists of various private and public institutions that include preschools, elementary and secondary schools, high schools, colleges and state universities. Private institutions are run by non-governmental organizations and often churches. Public education is one of the main expenditures of the state whose funding comes from local taxes. The American educational structure is as follows: First there is pre-higher education that consists of pre-primary classes involving kindergarten, nurseries, preschool programs, and child/day care centers. Then, there is primary education which is the elementary school from grades 1 to 7. After that the middle education comes which offers education from grades 4-6, or 5-7, or 6-8. Then, there are high schools providing education from grades 7 or 8 to 12. After this, higher education starts which is also referred to as postsecondary education, offered in universities. Organization An American school has a principal who is in charge of the school. an assistant principal who shares duties of the principal. curriculum coordinators. department heads, teachers as team leaders. student teachers. probationary teachers. tenured teachers. and support staff consisting of classified employees such as librarians, custodians and secretaries. As far as organization of school districts is concerned, there is a local board of education which is granted legal authority to run schools and is elected for a term of four years. There is a superintendent or director of schools who is a local expert in education. There is central office staff which comprises of clerical staff and curriculum coordinators secretaries. Organization at state level involves state boards of education which include nine members selected by the governor and has a large staff. There is a commissioner of education enforcing state legislature. Financing Education The main source of funding educational institutions in America is through taxation. Local revenue is obtained by property taxes. and, state revenue is obtained by sales taxes, income taxes, gaming (in casinos), and lotteries. The spending on education involves expenditure per pupil which was $7386 per pupil in Memphis in 2001-2002, and $6024 in Shelby Co. Basically, there are two kinds of state funding. Categorical funding includes financing which is besieged by the supplier for particular rationale. and, general funding which is supplied centrally but budgeted locally. General funding provides equal opportunities for funding of basic educational programs. Education funding in America is becoming challenging as the taxpayers are revolting and questioning about the funding because there is no way how schools relate their educational spending with the results. Also, research suggests that states are providing less money that needs to be spent on construction and maintenance of educational institutions due to which districts have to spend more locally. However, entrepreneurial efforts must be appreciated which include advertising on score boards. fund raising through selling school functions. donations, and the like.
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