NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying

NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying For this assignment, you will locate a minimum of 4 research articles related to the topic and PICOT questions that you developed in Week 2. The articles must be current (2002 to the present), and two articles must be quantitative, and two articles must be qualitative. These articles should be somewhat related to your PICOT questions. Articles used for one assignment can’t be used for the other assignments(students should find new research articles for each assignment). The selected articles should be original research articles. Review articles, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, and systemic review should not be used. Mixed-methods studies should not be used. NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying There are two parts to this assignment. Part 1: Complete a Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist chart for each research article (4 total).Download the following files in the Worksheets, Forms, and Templates area at left: Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist (pdf) Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist (doc) Part II: Write a summary (2–3 pages) Describe the similarities and differences among the four research articles. You should: Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources. Submit the 4 completed charts along with your summary. screen_shot_2020_05_09_at_1.34.24_pm.png rapid_critical_appraisal_and_summary_rev_1_3_18_.docx written_assignment_clinical_issues_and_research_questions.docx written_assignment_clinical_issues_and_research_questions.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist and Summary Find a minimum of 4 research articles related to nursing or medicine. • • Part 1: Complete the chart for each article (4 total). Part II: Write a summary. See specific criteria below. Part I: Use this table to assist you when analyzing the research that is most relevant to the topic. Put the source citation in APA here along with a link to the source. Elements for Analysis Review Findings Why was the study done? What is the problem as it is presented in the research study article? Will the study solve a problem relevant to nursing? (Make sure that the study is directly relevant to your topic/ and or clinical question.) What is the study setting? (Include who, where and when.) Page | 1 What is the sample size? (Size can and should vary according to the nature of the study.) What was the process for randomization? Are instruments of the variables in the study clearly defined and reliable? What are the independent and dependent variables in this study? Are the operational definitions of the variables given? If so, are they concrete and measurable? Is the research question or the hypothesis stated? What is it? (Make sure the variables were consistently applied throughout the study and that they measured what the research said they were going to measure.) (Report reliability and validity statistics if noted.) How were the data analyzed? Page | 2 Were there any unusual events during the study? (If the sample size changed, do the reasons for the change have ramifications on its replicability?) Did participants drop from the research? Why? How do the results fit in with previous research in this area? (Compare to your other sources.) Do the studies build upon previous research? What are the implications of the research for clinical practice? Is the study relevant and important to the clinical question? Are the results applicable to your set or subset of patients or sample, identify the risks and benefits of a treatment recommendation or conform to patient preferences? What are the findings as reported by the researcher? Adapted from “Demystifying Research: Simplifying Critical Appraisal”. Anne Dabrow Woods, MSN, RN, CRNP, ANP-BC Chief Nurse of Lippincott Williams and Wilkins and Ovid, and publisher of AJN: American Journal of Nursing. www.ovid.com May 7, 2012. Part II: Summarization (2-3 pages) • Describe the similarities and differences among the four research articles. Page | 3 RUNNING HEAD: NURSING ISSUES Nursing Issues: Workplace Violence and Bullying Background 1 NURSING ISSUES 2 In the past decade, cases of violence and bullying in the healthcare sector have increased. The nursing profession tops in the list of occupations with the highest rates of bullying and workplace violence (Matt, 2012). According to the American Nurses Association, the nurses must practice by following the principles of ethics such as compassion, respect, and sensitivity to human dignity. However, various researches show that nurses often display unwarranted behavior more than other disciplines. Although collaboration and teamwork help nurses provide quality care, increasing care of bullying and lateral violence result in undesirable outcomes on the victims and the patients, as well as colleagues. According to Sanner-Stiehr & Ward Smith (2016), bullying or lateral violence involves the mistreatment of peers by exhibiting hostile or aggressive behavior towards them in a hospital or other workplace setting. In most cases, this behavior aims to belittle, humiliate, or embarrass the victim. This behavior is disrespectful since it is intentionally carried out and directed towards a targeted individual, who in most cases, is the weaker, younger, or less experienced nurse. Also, the incidences of workplace bullying do not occur once and happen over a long time, causing the victim to suffer emotionally, psychologically, and physically.NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying According to Escribano et al. (2019), over 27 to 85 percent of nursing staff have experienced bullying or have been victims of the same at one time in their practice. Lateral violence and bullying may occur in the form of verbal abuse, favoritism, sabotage, humiliation, and assault. Workplace bullying is a global phenomenon that is not only in the U.S, as shown by research by Weaver (2013), that bullying among Korean nurses stands at 15%, 33% in the U.S, and 21 percent among Turkish nurses. The global impact of workplace bullying or lateral violence is a concern since it results in adverse effects, including increased nurse turnover, reduced morale, reduced productivity, and increased burnout and stress. This, in turn, lowers the NURSING ISSUES 3 quality of patient care as well as the safety of patients. This makes the issue of lateral violence in the field of nursing of great concern since, despite the staggering figures, most of the bullying activities go unreported due to fear of retaliation or tarnishing organizational reputation. However, this behavior is destructive and is associated with increased medical errors and compromises patient safety leading to more deaths. Significance of the Problem Estimates by Waever (2013), showed that by 2020, the U.S would require over 800,000 nurses. However, it will be impossible to reduce the nursing workforce shortage gap if the issue of workplace bullying is not addressed. This is because the number of nurses leaving the profession is increasing. For instance, the nurse turnover rate in the U.S, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada range from 15 to 44 percent (Khan et al., 2018). Also, Khan et al. (2018) report that over 30% of the victims of bullying resign while more than 21% of colleagues witnessing the violence leave in search of better working environments. This shows the seriousness of the matter since the cases of turnover could rise. Bullying in the workplace affects the victim nurses, the other clinical staff and colleagues, and the organization where it happens. In the case of victims, they are affected in various ways, including physiological impacts that result in increased irritability and anxiety, and emotional impact like a feeling of guilt, disbelief, helplessness, and anger. Also, the nurse has a high likelihood of developing PST, reduced self-esteem, and lack of confidence (Matt, 2012). On the other hand, the clinical staff who witness bullying are affected since they are unable to interact and communicate effectively with other staff. Also, they may experience elevated stress levels and may not be able to work well with colleagues with a history of bullying, leading to reduced job satisfaction. NURSING ISSUES 4 Lastly, the healthcare organization suffers in terms of reduced productivity, reduced morale, lack of patient satisfaction with care, increased absenteeism, and tarnished image, which may lead to loss of workers, clients, and patients (Escribano et al., 2019). In this case, bullying in the workplace is becoming expensive for healthcare organizations, since it results in a loss of millions of dollars annually. This includes financial losses dues to absenteeism, turnover, litigation, among other financial losses. There are various ways that organizations can deal with the problem. For instance, research shows that education and creation of awareness to students about bullying can help address the issue. According to Sanner-Stiehr & Ward Smith (2016), education on how to identify inappropriate behavior should be included in the nursing curriculum. This can be done through simulations to help students identify various clinical scenarios and practice how they would respond. Such simulations can help students master the skill of communication, enabling them to identify inappropriate behavior and respond accordingly. The other method of dealing with workplace bullying is by developing organizational policies that aim to stop tolerance to violence and inappropriate behavior among nursing staff interactions. NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying For instance, the policy should establish penalties and strict consequences for those found guilty of perpetrating violence and bullying. According to Ryan (2015), such policies are effective in curbing unprofessional habits among nurses during practice. NURSING ISSUES PICOT Questions 1. In the nursing profession, what is the impact of organizational cultural change compared to the development of bullying policies in reducing the negative outcomes of workplace violence such as absenteeism and turnover in the long run? 2. In a hospital setting, would having a bullying policy in place reduce the cases of bullying among nursing staff resulting in improved quality in a year? 3. For students in the field of nursing, can education through bullying simulations compared to no educational activity help prevent inappropriate behavior such as abusive and aggressive behavior within the first year of hire? 5 NURSING ISSUES 6 References Escribano, R. B., Beneit, J., & Luis Garcia, J. (2019). Violence in the workplace: some critical issues looking at the health sector. Heliyon, 5(3), e01283. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon. 2019.e01283 Khan, N., Jackson, D., Stayt, L., Walthall, H. (2018). Factors influencing nurses’ intention to leave adult critical care settings. British Association of Critical Care Nurses, 24(1), 2432. Matt, S. B. (2012). Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with Bullying in the Nursing Profession. Journal of Nursing Law, 15(1), 9-13. DOI: 10.1891/1073-7472.15.1.9 Ryan, L. (2005). The journey to integrate Watson’s caring theory with clinical practice. International Journal of Human Caring, 9(3), 26-31. DOI: 10.20467/1091-5710.9.3.26 Sanner-Steihr, E. & Ward-Smith (2017). Lateral violence in nursing: Implications and strategies for nurse educators. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(2): 113-118. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2016.08.007 Weaver, K. (2013). The effects of horizontal violence and bullying on new nurse retention. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development, 29(3), 138-142. RUNNING HEAD: NURSING ISSUES Nursing Issues: Workplace Violence and Bullying Background 1 NURSING ISSUES 2 In the past decade, cases of violence and bullying in the healthcare sector have increased. The nursing profession tops in the list of occupations with the highest rates of bullying and workplace violence (Matt, 2012). According to the American Nurses Association, the nurses must practice by following the principles of ethics such as compassion, respect, and sensitivity to human dignity. However, various researches show that nurses often display unwarranted behavior more than other disciplines. Although collaboration and teamwork help nurses provide quality care, increasing care of bullying and lateral violence result in undesirable outcomes on the victims and the patients, as well as colleagues. According to Sanner-Stiehr & Ward Smith (2016), bullying or lateral violence involves the mistreatment of peers by exhibiting hostile or aggressive behavior towards them in a hospital or other workplace setting. In most cases, this behavior aims to belittle, humiliate, or embarrass the victim. This behavior is disrespectful since it is intentionally carried out and directed towards a targeted individual, who in most cases, is the weaker, younger, or less experienced nurse. Also, the incidences of workplace bullying do not occur once and happen over a long time, causing the victim to suffer emotionally, psychologically, and physically. According to Escribano et al. (2019), over 27 to 85 percent of nursing staff have experienced bullying or have been victims of the same at one time in their practice.NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying Lateral violence and bullying may occur in the form of verbal abuse, favoritism, sabotage, humiliation, and assault. Workplace bullying is a global phenomenon that is not only in the U.S, as shown by research by Weaver (2013), that bullying among Korean nurses stands at 15%, 33% in the U.S, and 21 percent among Turkish nurses. The global impact of workplace bullying or lateral violence is a concern since it results in adverse effects, including increased nurse turnover, reduced morale, reduced productivity, and increased burnout and stress. This, in turn, lowers the NURSING ISSUES 3 quality of patient care as well as the safety of patients. This makes the issue of lateral violence in the field of nursing of great concern since, despite the staggering figures, most of the bullying activities go unreported due to fear of retaliation or tarnishing organizational reputation. However, this behavior is destructive and is associated with increased medical errors and compromises patient safety leading to more deaths. Significance of the Problem Estimates by Waever (2013), showed that by 2020, the U.S would require over 800,000 nurses. However, it will be impossible to reduce the nursing workforce shortage gap if the issue of workplace bullying is not addressed. This is because the number of nurses leaving the profession is increasing. For instance, the nurse turnover rate in the U.S, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada range from 15 to 44 percent (Khan et al., 2018). Also, Khan et al. (2018) report that over 30% of the victims of bullying resign while more than 21% of colleagues witnessing the violence leave in search of better working environments. This shows the seriousness of the matter since the cases of turnover could rise. Bullying in the workplace affects the victim nurses, the other clinical staff and colleagues, and the organization where it happens. In the case of victims, they are affected in various ways, including physiological impacts that result in increased irritability and anxiety, and emotional impact like a feeling of guilt, disbelief, helplessness, and anger. Also, the nurse has a high likelihood of developing PST, reduced self-esteem, and lack of confidence (Matt, 2012). On the other hand, the clinical staff who witness bullying are affected since they are unable to interact and communicate effectively with other staff. Also, they may experience elevated stress levels and may not be able to work well with colleagues with a history of bullying, leading to reduced job satisfaction. NURSING ISSUES 4 Lastly, the healthcare organization suffers in terms of reduced productivity, reduced morale, lack of patient satisfaction with care, increased absenteeism, and tarnished image, which may lead to loss of workers, clients, and patients (Escribano et al., 2019). In this case, bullying in the workplace is becoming expensive for healthcare organizations, since it results in a loss of millions of dollars annually. This includes financial losses dues to absenteeism, turnover, litigation, among other financial losses. There are various ways that organizations can deal with the problem.NURS 350 West Coast University Nursing Issues Workplace Violence and Bullying For instance, research shows that education and creation of awareness to students about bullying can help address the issue. According to Sanner-Stiehr & Ward Smith (2016), education on how to identify inappropriate behavior should be included in the nursing curriculum. This can be done through simulations to help students identify various clinical scenarios and practice how they would respond. Such simulations can help students master the skill of communication, enabling them to identify inappropriate behavior and respond accordingly. The other method of dealing with workplace bullying is by developing organizational policies that aim to stop tolerance to violence and inappropriate behavior among nursing staff interactions. For instance, the policy should establish penalties and strict consequences for those found guilty of perpetrating violence and bullying. According to Ryan (2015), such policies are effective in curbing unprofessional habits among nurses during practice. NURSING ISSUES PICOT Questions 1. In the nursing profession, what is the impact of organizational cultural change compared to the development of bullying policies in reducing the negative outcomes of workplace violence such as absenteeism and turnover in the long run? 2. In a hospital setting, would having a bullying policy in place reduce the cases of bullying among nursing staff resulting in improved quality in a year? 3. For students in the field of nursing, can education through bullying simulations compared to no educational activity help prevent inappropriate behavior such as abusive and aggressive behavior within the first year of hire? 5 NURSING ISSUES 6 References Escribano, R. B., Beneit, J., & Luis Garcia, J. (2019). Violence in the workplace: some critical issues looking at the health sector. Heliyon, 5(3), e01283. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon. 2019.e01283 Khan, N., Jackson, D., Stayt, L., Walthall, H. (2018). Factors influencing nurses’ intention to leave adult critical care settings. British Association of Critical Care Nurses, 24(1), 2432. Matt, S. B. (2012). Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with Bullying in the Nursing Profession. Journal of Nursing Law, 15(1), 9-13. DOI: 10.1891/1073-7472.15.1.9 Ryan, L. (2005). The journey to integrate Watson’s caring theory with clinical practice. International Journal of Human Caring, 9(3), 26-31. DOI: 10.20467/1091-5710.9.3.26 Sanner-Steihr, E. & Ward-Smith (2017). Lateral violence in nursing: Implications and strategies for nurse educators. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(2): 113-118. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2016.08.007 Weaver, K. (2013). The effects of horizontal violence and bullying on new nurse retention. 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