MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence

MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence I’m stuck on a Nursing question and need an explanation. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence Hello Professor Henry, we now have to make a table of evidence that talks about all the articles that I am sending you, using the template for the table of evidence that I also attached We need it no later than Monday, November 2 at 12 noon to be able to submit it to the teacher and not lose grades. Thanks a lot MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence evidence_table_rev.2020_pub.docx__submit_1_per_group_.docx kjpain_28_244.pdf pain_in_picu.pdf pediatric_pain_management_during_intravenous_line_placement__nurs___copy.pdf virtual_reality_analgesia_during_venipuncture_in_pediatric_patients_with_onco_hematological_diseases__1____copy.pdf MSN5300 Evidence Table Team A literature review is the foundation for every research project. The matrix reflects the structure of empirical research articles. Summarize each study across the row. Adding pg #s will help keep track of where specific information is located. Try to summarize in your own words – add quotes where you don’t. Citation (APA format) Research question/ Purpose/Hypothesis Theory/ Framework Research Design Research Sample Research variables/ measures Intervention/ Treatment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. KmR MSN5300 Rev. 1.2020 MSN 5300 Evidence Table (…con’t…) Purposefully look for similarities and differences between studies, identify themes that emerge and think about how each study might relate to others reviewed. Major findings, contributions KmR Study limitations, gaps that remain Study implications for research, practice, policy Make note of how this research is linked to other studies reviewed MSN5300 What are the implications of your analysis? What is missing? Where are the gaps in the body of literature? What would you suggest for future research? For practice? What new questions should be asked? Miscellaneous Rev. 1.2020 Korean J Pain 2015 October; Vol. 28, No. 4: 244-253 pISSN 2005-9159 eISSN 2093-0569 http://dx.doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2015.28.4.244 | Original Article | Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study 3rd Department of Surgery, General University Hospital “ATTIKON”, Athens, *Penteli General Children’s Hospital, Palaia Penteli, Athens, † General Hospital of Lamia, Lamia, ‡ st 1 Department of General Surgery, General University Hospital “LAIKO”, Athens, Greece Nick Zavras, Stella Tsamoudaki*, Vasileia Ntomi, Ioannis Yiannopoulos†, Efstratios Christianakis*, and Emmanuel Pikoulis‡ Background: Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision.MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results: A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions: Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. (Korean J Pain 2015; 28: 244-253) Key Words: Anxiety, Child; Circumcision; Pain measurement; Phimosis; Postoperative pain; Predictive value of tests; Questionnaires. Received June 10, 2015. Revised August 20, 2015. Accepted August 31, 2015. Correspondence to: Nick Zavras 3rd Department of Surgery, General University Hospital “ATTIKON”, 32 Terpsitheas str, Agia Paraskevi 15341, Athens, Greece Tel: ?30-2106549325, Fax: ?30-2105326411, E-mail: [email protected] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Copyright ? The Korean Pain Society, 2015 Zavras, et al / Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Operated on for Phimosis INTRODUCTION Circumcision for phimosis is one of the most frequent interventions in pediatric surgery [1]. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence Although regarded as minor and routine, it is a painful procedure [2] which, compounded by general anesthesia and hospitalization, can prove to be a particularly distressing event for children [3]. Furthermore, these disturbing factors may cause such anxiety as to influence pre- and postoperative recovery. It has been shown that patients with lower preoperative anxiety have a better recovery and show fewer emotional and behavioral problems after discharge, while those displaying heightened anxiety have a greater likelihood of suffering a number of negative psychological effects such as anxiety, depression, irritability, aggressiveness and disturbances in their relationship with caregivers [2]. From a medical point of view, perioperative anxiety may affect the immune system by increasing sensitivity to infections [4] and subsequent consumption of analgesics postoperatively [5]. In the present study, we investigated risk factors that may influence the presence of postoperative anxiety and pain in children undergoing elective surgery for phimosis using three different surgical techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective observational cohort study which took place from January 2010 to August 2014. Children included in the study were those with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I-II and aged 5 to 14 years that were scheduled for elective outpatient circumcision under general anesthesia. Exclusion criteria included any degree of cognitive and communicative impairment, bleeding disturbances, poor speaking and reading of the Greek language, refusal of parents to participate in the study, or loss to follow-up. 1. Objectives of the study 1) To determine the impact of demographics and base-line clinical characteristics on the degree of postoperative pain. 2) To examine the association between postoperative negative behavior manifestations (NBMs) and demographics, and base-line clinical characteristics. www.epain.org 245 2. Ethical considerations The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from the parents. 3. Definitions 1) Pain: defined as an unpleasant sensory experience associated with tissue damage [6]. 2) Anxiety: defined as a response of the brain to stimuli that the organism will attempt to avoid [7]. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence Table 1. Demographics and Base-line Clinical Characteristics Number (%) Age (years) 5?7 8?10 11?14 Nationality Greek Other Familial status Married Divorced Father’s education level Basic education High education Mother’s education level Basic education High education Birth order 1st ? 2nd Siblings Yes No Health problems No Yes History of previous surgery No Yes Sceduled surgery No Yes Preoperative preparation Not at all/a little Moderate Satisfactory Type of fimosis Congenital Acquired 107 (35.6) 171 (56.8) 23 (7.6) 222 (73.8) 79 (26.2) 274 (91.0) 27 (9.0) 173 (57.5) 128 (42.5) 185 (61.5) 116 (38.5) 122 (40.5) 179 (59.5) 269 (89.4) 32 (10.6) 292 (97.0) 9 (3.0) 190 (63.1) 111 (36.9) 6 (2.0) 295 (98.0) 24 (8.0) 99 (32.9) 178 (59.1) 285 (94.7) 16 (5.3) 246 Korean J Pain Vol. 28, No. 4, 2015 4. Preoperative protocol All children and their parents attended a preparation program before surgery (7-10 days before admission to the hospital), which included a visit to the ward and operating room and receiving detailed information concerning the surgical procedure, type of anesthesia, duration of the operation and possible complications. Data collected at this time included age, nationality, familial status, educational level of parents, birth order, health problems, previous surgical experience, schedule of surgery, preparation, and type of phimosis (congenital of acquired) (Table 1). On the day of surgery, after separating the children from their parents, preoperative anxiety was assessed in the operating room by an experienced anesthesiologist by using the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (m-YPAS) [8] (Table 2). This is a validated observational tool for assessing children’s anxiety that focuses on five items: activity, emotional expressivity, state of arousal, vocalization and use of parents. Each item comprises four categories, with the exception of vocalization that has six categories. A partial score is allocated to each item, and the sum is divided by the number of categories within that item. The score of each item is added to the others and the sum is multiplied by 20. Children with a score 23.5-30 are classified as not suffering from anxiety, while a score ? 30 denotes severe anxiety [9]. 5. Intraoperative protocol No premedication was given to the children, and the presence of parents at their child’s anesthesia induction was not allowed. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence General anesthesia was delivered with atropine 0.01 mg/kg, propofol 3 mg/kg and fentanyl 1 ?g/kg intravenously. When needed, rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg was used to enable a laryngeal mask of appropriate size to be put in place. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and O2/N2O. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2), and capnography were monitored during anesthesia. Intraoperative analgesia was estimated on the basis of gross movements or changes in HR and MAP. Increases ? 20% of the initial values were recorded and considered as signs of inadequate analgesia. Following induction of anesthesia and before the start of surgery, a subcutaneous ring block of 0.25% levobupivacaine (0.5% levobupivacaine diluted in normal saline, ? Chirocaine , Abbott Laboratories Ltd) was injected around the base of the penis at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg (total dose 0.5 mg/kg). The duration of each surgical procedure (from induction to completion of surgery) was defined as low (10-15 minutes), moderate (15-25 minutes) or increased (25-30 minutes). Circumcision was performed according to the preference of surgeons. The following surgical techniques were used: conventional circumcision (CC), sutureless prepuceplasty (SP) [10] and preputial plasty (PP) [11]. The complications of the surgical procedures were rated. 6. Postoperative evaluation On the ward, the doctor responsible (NZ) documented the type of surgical technique and any complication due to anesthetic or surgical interventions. An experienced nurse blinded to the surgical technique assessed postoperative pain according to Bieri’s Faces Pain Scale [12]. FPS scores ? 3, were considered as an indication of pain. Table 2. Univariate and Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis Demonstrating the Most Significant Factors Related to Preoperative Increased Anxiety Univariate P Odds ratio (95% CI) P 0.004 3.004 (1.474?6.124) 0.002 2.38 (0.98?5.82) 0.05 5.587 (2.624?11.890) 1.39 (1.03?1.88) 0.03 2.728 (0.762?9.758) 0.123 1.16 (1.00?1.35) 0.05 6.129 (0,782?48.020) 0.084 Odds ratio (95% CI) Nationality Greek vs non-Greek Familial status Both parents vs divorced Number of siblings None vs ?1 Type of phimosis Congenital vs acquired Multivariate 2.79 (1.823?8.248) ?0.001 www.epain.org Zavras, et al / Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Operated on for Phimosis Paracetamol (20 mg/kg) per os or rectum was given when indicated. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence 7. After discharge 1) Children’s NBMs were evaluated according to obrd servations made at home on the 3 postoperative day. We rd selected the 3 postoperative day to avoid the influence of significant pain on NBMs. Studies have shown that pain rd decreases by the 3 postoperative day [13]. Vernon’s Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) [14] was chosen to estimate NBMs in children and was offered to the parents in a typed form. PHBQ consists of a list of 27 possible PB traits that children could exhibit. The following domains of anxiety are included in PHBQ: general anxiety, separation anxiety, sleep anxiety, eating disturbances, aggression against authority, and apathy/ withdrawal. The children are rated by parents as exhibiting NBM according to the following: (1) much less than before surgery, (2) less than before surgery, (3) the same as before surgery, (4) more than before surgery, and (5) much more than before. The total score ranges from 27 to 135. A score from 27-80 represents fewer NBMs, 81 represents the same as before, and 81-135 represents more. PHBQ has been shown to demonstrate reliability and prediction of changes due to preoperative interventions [15]. 2) At home, parents rated their child’s pain according st nd to the total doses of analgesics given on the 1 , 2 , and 3rd postoperative day. Parents were encouraged to visit the hospital on the th 8 postoperative day to allow a second look at the wound, submit the written answers to the PHBQ and provide the recorded total of analgesics given. Alternatively, two doctors (NZ and VN) contacted families by phone. 8. Statistical analysis The association of each one of the demographics and base-line clinical characteristics with m-YPAS scale and FPS were evaluated using a univariate logistic regression model of analysis. Subsequently, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for those parameters that were proven to be significant in the univariate analysis in order to evaluate the independency of each association, and the statistical significant differences were recorded rd accordingly. Children were evaluated for NBMs on the 3 postoperative day and were divided into two groups according to PHBQ scores: those with NBMs and those withwww.epain.org 247 out NBMs. These groups were further subdivided into two groups according to age: 5-7 years and 8-14 years respectively. Pearson’s chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney test were used for the comparison of continuous variables between the two groups. The impact of different factors was compiled and further analysed in a multiple logistic regression analysis in order to find independent factors associated with NBMs. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed from the results of the logistic regression analyses. All reported P values were two-tailed. Statistical significance was set at P ? 0.05 and analyses were conducted using SPSS statistical software (version 19.0). RESULTS After the exclusion of 23 children for various reasons, a total of 301 children (mean age: 7.56 ± 2.61 years) were enrolled in the study. MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence A hundred and seven (35.5%) children were aged 5-7 years, 171 (56,8%) were aged 8-10 years, and 23 (7.6%) were aged 11-14 years. Sample demographics and base-line clinical characteristics are presented in Table 1. The majority of children (73.8%) were of Greek nationality. In 9% of the sample, the parents were divorced. A separate health problem was reported in nine (3.0%) children, and 111 (36.9%) patients had a history of previous surgery. Surgery was scheduled in almost all cases (98%). In 178 (59.1%) of cases, the preoperative preparation was considered as satisfactory. Preoperative increased anxiety was recorded in 185 (61.5%) children. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that m-YPAS was increased in children of non-Greek origin and children without siblings (P : 0.004, and P : 0.03, respectively). The same analysis revealed a borderline increase of m-YPAS for children of divorced parents (P : 0.05) and those having acquired phimosis (P : 0.05) (Table 2). However, the multivariate regression analysis showed that preoperative increased anxiety was observed only in children of divorced parents [OR: 5.587 (CI: 2.624-11.890)], P : ? 0.001, and in those of non-Greek nationality [OR: 3.004 (95% CI: 1.474-6.124)], P : 0.002 (Table 2). The SP technique was performed on 99 children (32.9%), PP on 93 (30.9%), and CC on 109 (36.2%) (Table 3). Regarding the duration of surgery, the mean time for the SP technique was significantly less (10.25 ± 1.1 minutes) 248 Korean J Pain Vol. 28, No. 4, 2015 Table 3. Intraoperative and Postoperative Findings. Results are Expressed as Mean ± SD and % Number 0f patients Duration of operation (min) FPS score Postoperative complications (no of pts) Oedema Hematoma Consumption of analgesics (in doses) 1 st post. day nd 2 post. day rd 3 post. day Total: 111 SP PP CC P 99 10.3 ± 1.1 3.12 ± 0.95 93 17.3 ± 2.7 3.56 ± 1.09 109 23.6 ± 2.5 4.89 ± 1.32 ?0.001 ?0.001 20 0 30 22 47 32 ?0.001 ?0.001 9 6 0 15 9 5 4 18 52 16 10 78 ?0.001 NS 0.007 Table 4. Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis Regarding Demographics, Base-line Clinical Characteristics and FACES Scale Surgical technique PP technique vs SP CC technique vs SP Number of siblings None vs ? 1 Complications None vs yes 95% Conf, Interval of OR Odds Ratio SE z P 10,245 69,410 7,232 59,182 3,300 4,970 0,001 ?0,001 2,568 13,051 40,870 369,147 0,354 0,182 ?2,020 0,043 0,130 0,968 4,625 1,686 4,200 ?0,001 2,264 9,450 as compared with PP (17.31 ± 2.71 minutes) and CC (23.58 ± 2.48 minutes) (P ? 0.001). The mean FPS score was 4.37 ± 1.48 (range 2-8). Patients submitted to CC exhibited statistically higher mean pain scores (FPS: P ? 0.001) when compared with the other surgical procedures. Postoperative complications were recorded in 27.7% of cases (edema in 18.7% of the cases, hematoma in 6.7% and both edema and hematoma in 2.3%). MRU MSN 5300 Structure of Empirical Research Articles Table of Evidence The majority (56.3%) were noted in children who underwent the CC procedure (Table 3). Regarding the intake of analgesics at home, a total of 111 doses of analgesics were given over st nd rd the 1 , 2 , and 3 postoperative days: specifically, 70 (63%) doses were given on the 1st postoperative day, 27 (24.3%) on the 2nd and 14 (12.7%) on the 3rd postoperative day. The majority (70.2%) were needed for those children who underwent the CC technique. The results of the multivariate regression analysis showed a strong correlation between the type of surgical technique (PP versus SP and CC versus SP) and the presence of postoperative pain as- sessed with the FPS [OR: 10.24 and 69.41 (95%CI: 2.568-40.87 and 13.051-369.14 respectively), P : 001, and P ? 0.001 respectively] (Table 4). On the 3rd postoperative day, 98 (32.6%) children presented NBMs. Table 5 summarizes the results of the most significant factors that are influenced in the presence of NBMs based on the univariate logistic model. According to this, parental status, mother education level, birth order, no previous experience of surgery, the type of phimosis, the surgical technique, the nationality, the duration of surgery and the level of preoperative anxiety seems to influence the presence of NBMs More specifically, NBMs were seen in cases of children whose parents were divorced and whose mothers had reached only a basic level of education. Significantly higher percentages of NBMs were associated with the first born child and those with no previous experience of surgery. Moreover, the proportion of children with rd NBMs on the 3 postoperative day was significantly lower in SP cases as compared with both CC and PP (P ? 0.001 for both comparisons), while PP cases exhibited fewer www.epain.org 249 Zavras, et al / Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Operated on for Phimosis Table 5. NBMs on 3 rd Postoperative Day Associated with the Most Significant … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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