Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion

Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion You get to select the question you would like to answer from the list provided but here are the rules: NCS of NS of Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion All the questions need to be answered, so select a question that has not been answered. If you are answering a question that has already been answered, answer the question completely AND add some new, additional information to your response to make it interesting. This can be accomplished by: answering the question from a different perspective, or view point, adding an additional reference (in addition to the textbook), inserting a table or jpeg for clarity of response or discussing how the topic relates to you or someone you know. It is your responsibility to follow the rules in order to maximize your grade. Questions are posted below, so it should be easy to tell which questions are available to answer. Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion Participation in weekly discussion is worth a significant part of your final grade and this forum presents you with an opportunity to develop a life-long skill of written communication. Please review the grading rubric attached to this assignment so you know what is expected. Please see course calendar for specific due dates. Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion Describe children’s nutrient needs and discuss some of the nutritional related issues they face. Describe school aged children’s nutrient needs and discuss some of the nutrition related issues they face, including childhood obesity. Describe adolescents’ nutrient needs and discuss some of the nutritional related issues they face, including eating disorders. Summarize the nutrient needs of older adults and discuss some of the nutrition related health concerns common to old age. We will continue to apply our extensive nutrition knowledge to the specific needs of toddlers to adolescence to older adults. Dietary patterns, nutrition-related concerns, and helpful tips for caregivers are provided through childhood to adolescence and into adult hood. Finally, the unique nutritional needs of older adults are explored. The importance of a nutrient-dense diet balanced with physical activity to decrease the risks of obesity and chronic disease is emphasized. human_nutrition_chapter_14___15.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Human Nutrition Human Nutrition UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‘I AT M?NOA FOOD SCIENCE AND HUMAN NUTRITION PROGRAM ALAN TITCHENAL, ALLISON CALABRESE, CHERYL GIBBY, MARIE KAINOA FIALKOWSKI REVILLA, AND WILLIAM MEINKE Human Nutrition by University of Hawai‘i at M?noa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. This Human Nutrition OER textbook includes content from a number of OER sources. All new content added to this book is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, while select chapters have been used and are shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license. All other content not under a CC is used fairly and is labeled as such. This book was produced using, and PDF rendering was done by PrinceXML. Contents Preface xi About the Contributors xii Acknowledgements xvii Chapter 1. Basic Concepts in Nutrition Introduction 3 Food Quality 9 Units of Measure 11 Lifestyles and Nutrition 13 Achieving a Healthy Diet 17 Research and the Scientific Method 19 Types of Scientific Studies 23 Chapter 2. The Human Body Introduction 31 Basic Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology 36 The Digestive System 40 The Cardiovascular System 50 Central Nervous System 58 The Respiratory System 61 The Endocrine System 66 The Urinary System 68 The Muscular System 73 The Skeletal System 74 The Immune System 81 Indicators of Health: Body Mass Index, Body Fat Content, and Fat Distribution 82 Chapter 3. Water and Electrolytes Introduction 93 Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 96 Water’s Importance to Vitality 100 Regulation of Water Balance 105 Electrolytes Important for Fluid Balance 111 Sodium 113 Chloride 121 Potassium 123 Consequences of Deficiency or Excess 125 Water Concerns 130 Popular Beverage Choices 134 Chapter 4. Carbohydrates Introduction 141 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 149 The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body 158 Health Consequences and Benefits of High-Carbohydrate Diets 163 Carbohydrates and Personal Diet Choices 168 Chapter 5. Lipids Introduction 179 The Functions of Lipids in the Body 182 The Role of Lipids in Food 184 How Lipids Work 186 Nonessential and Essential Fatty Acids 192 Digestion and Absorption of Lipids 197 Tools for Change 206 Lipids and the Food Industry 210 Lipids and Disease 213 A Personal Choice about Lipids 216 Chapter 6. Protein Introduction 221 Defining Protein 224 The Role of Proteins in Foods: Cooking and Denaturation 231 Protein Digestion and Absorption 234 Protein’s Functions in the Body 237 Diseases Involving Proteins 245 Proteins in a Nutshell 251 Proteins, Diet, and Personal Choices 253 Chapter 7. Alcohol Introduction 265 Alcohol Metabolism 268 Health Consequences of Alcohol Abuse 271 Health Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Intake 274 Chapter 8. Energy Introduction 277 The Atom 281 Weight Management 288 Factors Affecting Energy Intake 295 Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure 299 Dietary, Behavioral, and Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Management 304 Chapter 9. Vitamins Introduction 311 Fat-Soluble Vitamins 316 Water-Soluble Vitamins 333 Antioxidants 363 The Body’s Offense 365 Phytochemicals 367 Chapter 10. Major Minerals Introduction 371 Calcium 375 Phosphorus 384 Sulfur 386 Magnesium 387 Summary of Major Minerals 389 Chapter 11. Trace Minerals Introduction 393 Iron 396 Copper 402 Zinc 403 Selenium 405 Iodine 409 Chromium 412 Manganese 413 Molybdenum 414 Fluoride 415 Summary of Trace Minerals 418 Chapter 12. Nutrition Applications Introduction 423 Understanding Daily Reference Intakes 425 Discovering Nutrition Facts 429 Building Healthy Eating Patterns 440 MyPlate Planner 443 Pacific Based Dietary Guidelines 451 Understanding the Bigger Picture of Dietary Guidelines 457 Chapter 13. Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years Introduction 463 Pregnancy 467 Infancy 479 Toddler Years 498 Chapter 14. Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence Introduction 507 Childhood 509 Adolescence 515 Late Adolescence 518 Chapter 15. Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood Introduction 525 Young Adulthood 527 Middle Age 531 Older Adulthood: The Golden Years 534 Chapter 16. Performance Nutrition Introduction 541 The Essential Elements of Physical Fitness 543 The Benefits of Physical Activity 548 Fuel Sources 550 Sports Nutrition 557 Water and Electrolyte Needs 564 Food Supplements and Food Replacements 567 Chapter 17. Food Safety Introduction 573 The Major Types of Foodborne Illness 576 The Causes of Food Contamination 578 Protecting the Public Health 586 The Food System 589 Food Preservation 591 Food Processing 594 The Effect of New Technologies 597 Efforts on the Consumer Level: NCS of NS of Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion What You Can Do 599 Chapter 18. Nutritional Issues Introduction 605 Comparing Diets 607 Nutrition, Health and Disease 614 Threats to Health 625 Undernutrition, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition 635 Food Insecurity 638 Careers in Nutrition 643 Appendix A: Comparison of Dietary Reference Intake Values (for adult men and women) 645 and Daily Values for Micronutrients with the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Safe Upper Levels (SUL), and Guidance Levels Attributions 648 Preface ‘A‘ohe pau ka ‘ike i ka h?lau ho‘okahi Knowledge isn’t taught in all one place This open access textbook was developed as an introductory nutrition resource to reflect the diverse dietary patterns of people in Hawai‘i and the greater Pacific. Using the ‘?lelo no‘eau, or Hawaiian proverb, stated above, we believe that the principles of nutrition should be taught through the context of our communities and environments. Its intended audience are students from the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa enrolled in the Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) 185 course, The Science of Human Nutrition. However, this open access textbook may be of interest to other courses interested in teaching nutrition through a Hawai‘i-Pacific framed lens. This book is best viewed online using the pressbooks format however, multiple formats (e.g., pdf, epub, mobi) are also made available. Preface by University of Hawai‘i at M?noa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. xi About the Contributors This open access textbook was made possible through the collaboration of faculty, students and staff at the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa demonstrating the value of working together, ho‘okahi ka ‘ilau like ana. Faculty MARIE KAINOA FIALKOWSKI REVILLA Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla is a Native Hawaiian faculty member in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa. She teaches a number of courses in nutrition both face to face and online. She is dedicated to developing readily available and accessible nutrition education materials and curricula that reflect Hawai‘i and the Pacific to ensure that her students can relate to the content being learned. She enjoys spending time with her ‘ohana (family) at their home in Ahuimanu on the island of O‘ahu. xii ALAN TITCHENAL Dr. Titchenal received a PhD in nutrition from the University of California at Davis with emphasis on exercise physiology and physiological chemistry. His work at the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa has focused on the broad areas of nutrition and human performance and translation of nutrition science for public consumption. This has included the “Got Nutrients?” project that provides daily messages on topics related to nutrition, fitness, and health and the publication of over 600 articles in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser newspaper. xiii | About the Contributors Students ALLISON CALABRESE Allison Calabrese is currently a MS graduate student in the Nutritional Sciences Program at University of Hawai‘i at M?noa. She obtained her BS from California Lutheran University in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Health Professions. Her research interests include the relationship between diet and optimal health. CHERYL GIBBY Cheryl Gibby was born and raised in Hawai‘i and is a wife and mother of three. She received her BA, MS in Nutritional Sciences, and PhD in Nutrition from the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa. She has served as an instructor for the About the Contributors | xiv introductory Nutrition course at the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa, and her research interests include infant and child health, dental and bone health, mobile health interventions, school nutrition policies, and online education. Staff BILLY MEINKE Billy is the Open Educational Resources Technologist for the Outreach College at the University of Hawai‘i at M?noa. Contact Person Dr. Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla [email protected] 808-956-8337 1955 East West Road Honolulu, HI 96822 University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences NOTE TO EDUCATORS USING THIS RESOURCE Please send edits and suggestions directly to Dr. Fialkowski Revilla on how we may improve the textbook. We also welcome others to adopt the book for their own course needs, however, we would like to be able to keep a record of users so that we may update them on any critical changes to the textbook. Please contact Dr. Fialkowski Revilla if you are considering to adopt the textbook for your course. NCS of NS of Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion xv | About the Contributors About the Contributors by University of Hawai‘i at M?noa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. About the Contributors | xvi Acknowledgements This Open Educational Resource textbook has been adapted from: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology // CC BY 4.0 • Chapter 2 The Human Body An Introduction to Human Nutrition // CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 • Chapter 1 Basic Concepts in Nutrition • Chapter 3 Water and Electrolytes • Chapter 4 Carbohydrates • Chapter 5 Lipids • Chapter 6 Protein • Chapter 8 Energy • Chapter 12 Nutrition Applications • Chapter 13 Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years • Chapter 14 Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence • Chapter 15 Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood • Chapter 17 Food Safety • Chapter 18 Nutritional Issues Chapters and sections were borrowed and adapted from the above existing OER textbooks on human nutrition. Without these foundational texts, a lot more work would have been required to complete this project. Mahalo (thank you) to those who shared before us. All other content should include the following attribution statement: — This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Human Nutrition by the University of Hawai’i at M?noa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program. — This Open Educational Resource textbook was also inspired by: Kansas State University Human Nutrition | // CC BY 3.0 Edited and Reviewed by Cecille Farnum — Ryerson University, Copyeditor xvii Download this book for free at: Changqi Leu — San Diego State University, Chapter reviewer Billy Meinke — University of Hawai’i at M?noa, Project manager Paula Parslow — Private, Copyeditor Trina Robertson — Saddleback College, Chapter reviewer Allison Tepper — American University, Chapter reviewer Front Cover Photo Rachel Inouye / CC BY 4.0 Special Thanks to Bill Chismar – University of Hawai’i at M?noa, Dean of Outreach College The Children’s Healthy Living Summer Institute – University of Hawai’i at M?noa Open Educational Resources This text is provided to you as an Open Educational Resource (OER) which you access online. It is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to human nutrition at no or very nominal cost. It contains both written and graphic text material, intra-text links to other internal material which may aid in understanding topics and concepts, intra-text links to the appendices and glossary for tables and definitions of words, and extra-text links to videos and web material that clarifies and augments topics and concepts. Acknowledgements by University of Hawai‘i at M?noa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Acknowledgements | xviii CHAPTER 14. LIFESPAN NUTRITION DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE 505 Introduction E m?lama ‘ia n? pono o ka ‘?ina e na ‘?pio The traditions of the land are perpetuated by its youth Image by Brytni K-aloha / CC BY 4.0 507 Learning Objectives By the end of this chapter you will be able to: • Describe the physiological basis for nutrient requirements during childhood and adolescence. Early childhood encompasses infancy and the toddler years, from birth through age three. The remaining part of childhood is the period from ages four through eight and is the time when children enter school. A number of critical physiological and emotional changes take place during the life stage from childhood through adolescences. Children’s attitudes and opinions about food deepen. They not only begin taking their cues about food preferences from family members, but also from peers and the larger culture. In Hawai‘i, organizations such as the K?kua Hawai‘i Foundation have implemented school programs such as ‘?ina In Schools to connect children to their local land, waters, and food. The program initiative is to address childhood health issues by fostering healthy eating habits by teaching and engaging youth about local and traditional foods.1 Parents also greatly impact their child’s nutritional choices. This time in a child’s life provides an opportunity for parents and other caregivers to reinforce good eating habits and to introduce new foods into the diet, while remaining mindful of a child’s preferences. Parents should also serve as role models for their children, who will often mimic their behavior and eating habits. NCS of NS of Massage Therapy Nutrient Needs of Older Adults Discussion Parents must continue to help their school-aged children and adolescents establish healthy eating habits and attitudes toward food. Their primary role is to bring a wide variety of health-promoting foods into the home, so that their children can make good choices. CC licensed content, Shared previously • An Introduction to Human Nutrition. Located at: License: CC BY: Attribution Notes 1. About ‘?ina In Schools. K?kua Hawai‘i Foundation. Accessed February 16, 2018. Introduction | 508 Childhood Image by Brytni K-aloha / CC BY 4.0 Nutritional needs change as children leave the toddler years. From ages four to eight, school-aged children grow consistently, but at a slower rate than infants and toddlers. They also experience the loss of deciduous, or “baby,” teeth and the arrival of permanent teeth, which typically begins at age six or seven. As new teeth come in, many children have some malocclusion, or malposition, of their teeth, which can affect their ability to chew food. Other changes that affect nutrition include the influence of peers on dietary choices and the kinds of foods offered by schools and afterschool programs, which can make up a sizable part of a child’s diet. Food-related problems for young children can include tooth decay, food sensitivities, and malnourishment. Also, excessive weight gain early in life can lead to obesity into adolescence and adulthood. At this life stage, a healthy diet facilitates physical and mental development and helps to maintain health and wellness. School-aged children experience steady, consistent growth, with an average growth rate of 2–3 inches (5–7 centimeters) in height and 4.5–6.5 pounds (2–3 kilograms) in weight per year. In addition, the rate of growth for the extremities is faster 509 than for the trunk, which results in more adult-like proportions. Long-bone growth stretches muscles and ligaments, which results in many children experiencing “growing pains,” at night, in particular.1 ENERGY Children’s energy needs vary, depending on their growth and level of physical activity. Energy requirements also vary according to gender. Girls ages four to eight require 1,200 to 1,800 calories a day, while boys need 1,200 to 2,000 calories daily, and, depending on their activity level, maybe more. Also, recommended intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients are higher relative to body size, compared with nutrient needs during adulthood. Therefore, children should be provided nutrient-dense food at meal- and snack-time. However, it is important not to overfeed children, as this can lead to childhood obesity, which is discussed in the next section. Parents and other caregivers can turn to the MyPlate website for guidance: MACRONUTRIENTS For carbohydrates, the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) is 45–65 percent of daily calories (which is a recommended daily allowance of 135–195 grams for 1,200 daily calories). Carbohydrates high in fiber should make up the bulk of intake. The AMDR for protein is 10–30 percent of daily calories (30–90 grams for 1,200 daily calories). Children have a high need for protein to support muscle growth and development. High levels of essential fatty acids are needed to support growth (although not as high as in infancy and the toddler years). As a result, the AMDR for fat is 25–35 percent of daily calories (33–47 grams for 1,200 daily calories). Children should get 17–25 grams of fiber per day. MICRONUTRIENTS Micronutrient needs should be met with foods first. Parents and caregivers should select a variety of foods from each food group to ensure that nutritional requirements are met. Because children grow rapidly, they require foods that are high in iron, such as lean meats, legumes, fish, poultry, and iron-enriched cereals. Adequate fluoride is crucial to support strong teeth. One of the most important micronutrient requirements during childhood is adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Both are needed to build dense bones and a strong skeleton. Children who do not consume adequate vitamin D should be given a supplement of 10 micrograms (400 international units) per day. Table 14.1 “Micronutrient Levels during Childhood” shows the micronutrient recommendations for school-aged children. (Note that the recommendations are the same for boys and girls. As we progress through the different stages of the human life cycle, there will be some differences between males and females regarding micronutrient needs.) Table 14.1 Micronutrient Levels during Childhood Childhood | 510 Nutrient Children, Ages 4–8 Vitamin A (mcg) 400.0 Vitamin B6 (mcg) 600.0 Vitamin B12 (mcg) 1.2 Vitamin C (mg) 25.0 Vitamin D (mcg) 5.0 Vitamin E (mg) 7.0 Vitamin K (mcg) 55.0 Calcium (mg) 800.0 Folate (mcg) 200.0 Iron (mg) 10.0 Magnesium (mg) 130.0 Niacin (B3) (mg) 8.0 Phosphorus (mg) 500.0 Riboflavin (B2) (mcg) 600.0 511 | Childhood Selenium (mcg) 30.0 Thiamine (B1) (mcg) 600.0 Zinc (mg) 5.0 Source:Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Accessed December 10, 2017. Factors Influencing Intake A number of factors can influence children’s eating habits and attitudes toward food. 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