[SOLUTION] Kindergarten Movement

Kindergarten Movement  Part 1 – Readings A.  Describe the idea you selected from the readings that connects with your thinking or is of interest to you.  (100 words) B.  Describe your thinking that the idea or interest from the readings connects to.  (100 words) C.  Describe why you think the two ideas are connected.  (100 words) Chapter 9 The Kindergarten Movement [T]he system of infant culture . . . was by far the most original, attractive, and philosophical form of infant development the world as yet had seen. —Henry Barnard1 American Beginnings The American public learned about kindergarten from two articles: one by Henry Barnard, in 1856, reporting that he had seen a kindergarten at the International Exhibit of Educational Systems in London in 1854,2 and the other from “Kindergärten of Germany” in the November 1859 issue of the Christian Examiner, the official publication of the Unitarian Church. The second article included a summary of Froebel’s ideas by the Baroness von Marenholtz-Bülow.3 The kindergarten arrived in America before the Civil War during a time when men and women, dissatisfied with American backwardness, were trying to change American society by reforming its education to be practical, moral, and democratic. Kindergartens did not attract the attention and the support of the American educators of the time even though they were described in the educational literature. Some of the reasons for this were that (1) American education was being transformed; (2) as long as the concept of education was seen as instruction in the three R’s and not as development from within of the whole child, kindergarten theory and practice could not be universally accepted; (3) the goals and methods of the kindergarten—self-activity and self-expression— were too different from the existing methods to be accepted wholesale; and (4) America was slow to recognize the value of early childhood for educational purposes, and until it did the kindergarten could have no meaning. Primary schools, like kindergartens, were not part of the school system. They were managed independently, and children had to be seven years of age to enter them and had to already know how to read and write. It was about 1860 that public schools were incorporated into the grade schools.4 German-American Kindergartens (1855–1870) The ill-fated 1848 Revolution in Germany, which tried to obtain more voice and more democracy for the people, brought a large number of Germans to the United States. They were highly educated men and women who were 235 Lascarides, V. Celia, and Blythe F. Hinitz. History of Early Childhood Education, Taylor & Francis Group, 2000. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nlu/detail.action?docID=1195796. Created from nlu on 2020-10-27 14:21:01. Copyright © 2000. Taylor & Francis Group. All rights reserved. familiar with and shared Froebel’s ideas for a more humane education. Between 1850 and 1870, these German immigrants established private, German-American academies to educate their children and preserve their culture and language, in all the cities where they had settled: New York City; Milwakee; Detroit; Newark, New Jersey; and Louisville.5 These schools stimulated interest in German educational practices. Horace Mann, as secretary of the board of education in Massachusetts, was one of many Americans who visited the German schools in 1843 and reported about them to the Massachusetts Legislature. In addition to the kindergartens in these academies, there were other private, independent kindergartens. Margarethe Schurz (1833–1876) opened a small German-speaking kindergarten in her home in Watertown, Wisconsin, in 1856 (four years after Froebel’s death) for the benefit of the Schurz children and those of relatives, the Jüssen clans. It was an experiment, one of the first of its kind in the United States. Her purpose was to preserve their German cultural heritage and language. She taught the children, in German, the Froebelian kindergarten songs, games, and occupations as she had studied under Froebel in 1849 in Hamburg. This kindergarten closed in 1858 when the Schurzes moved to Milwaukee.6 Another German-speaking kindergarten was established in Columbus, Ohio, by Miss Caroline Luise (Louisa) Frankenberg in 1836, a year before Froebel opened his institution for young children in Blankenburg and twenty years before Mrs. Schurz’s kindergarten. Miss Frankenberg’s trip to America was precipitated by Froebel’s essay “The Renewal of Life” (1836). In it he pointed to the United States as the country best suited for his educational plans. Things did not work out for her in Columbus, and disheartened, she returned to Germany.7 Miss Frankenberg stayed there from 1840 until 1858. While there she taught at Keilhau under Froebel’s direction for six years. In 1847, she was appointed kindergarten teacher in the “Kindergarten of the Women’s Charitable Institution in Dresden,” and in 1852, she opened her own kindergarten in Bautzen, where she encountered opposition from the local clergy—for a total of eleven years.8 Miss Frankenberg was a sister of Adolph Frankenberg, Froebel’s friend and disciple, who had helped Froebel in Dresden during 1838–1839. She had married Professor Marquardt.9 For whatever reasons, Miss Frankenberg returned to Columbus in 1858, to the same house where she had lived before, and established the first practical working kindergarten in the United States there. She and the school were ahead of their time, but she had difficulty attracting many students. To the parents, the making of paper birds, boats, and caps; modeling in clay; marching; and singing were simply child’s play. It was called “the play school.” Children on their way to private or public schools in Columbus never failed to stop and look in the window or door and marvel at children who learned without books. As Miss Frankenberg did not speak English, she had few, if any, American pupils.


So much stress and so little time? Take care of yourself: let us help you with your task on
[SOLUTION] Kindergarten Movement
Get a 20% Discount on this Paper
Get Help Now

Order Solution Now at a 15% Discount!

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Get personalized services with Do My Homeworkk
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Excellent. Thnk you
Customer 452443, October 22nd, 2021
Although the paper did not make it at the requested time, the writer did reach out to me and asked for a short extension which I was okay with.
Customer 452493, March 16th, 2022
Thank you! :)
Customer 452493, May 14th, 2022
M5A1 Outline and Thesis
Paper was late
Customer 452457, November 15th, 2021
Looks good. Thank you!!!
Customer 452503, April 25th, 2022
Chemical Engineering
Amazing. The writer delivered the draft earlier than expected, lol. I am pleased with the work; I hope my supervisor will like it too.
Customer 452443, September 1st, 2021
Wow! I should never have doubted you guys. Thank you for the excellent grade
Customer 452443, August 27th, 2021
English 101
Great work!
Customer 452443, December 2nd, 2021
Looks good. Thank you!
Customer 452523, September 27th, 2022
Classic English Literature
Much appreciated - thank you very much!
Customer 452493, April 13th, 2022
Customer 452493, April 12th, 2022
Awesome work, responded well and clarified everything.. Would definitely recommend, great service
Customer 452445, September 8th, 2021
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat