[SOLVED] Human Growth and Development

Create a thesis and an outline on Human growth and devleoment the late adult years. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The average lifespan of a person is considered to be seventy years. We will look at a detailed explanation of the changes that occur in this stage. These Changes are normally categorized into Physical, cognitive and Psychosocial. Physical Changes These are the physical or rather observable changes that are seen in old age. The first is the Reaction time. This is the time between the introduction of a stimulus to the time the body muscles react to it. The physical skills of elder people normally deteriorate with age. The elderly find it hard or virtually impossible to conduct a long series of tasks and also do things in a slow manner. Studies have shown that younger people interact with older people in a manner that is depersonalized, discriminatory, and disrespectful (Levy & Banaji, 2002). It is a form of prejudice commonly referred to as ageism. Ageism can adversely affect the elderly in that they subordinate their quality of lives. Their self-esteem and confidence is shattered, they also feel inferior and mistreated causing them not to contribute to the society as they would normally do. This stereotype should be changed as the elderly are part of us and are our parents and should be accorded with the respect that they deserve. The sensory abilities such as vision, hearing, and balance in the elderly also decrease with age (Humes, 2005). Different eye problems may affect the elderly. These problems are as a result of lenses becoming less elastic, thicker and less transparent. Retina changes also contribute to these problems resulting to eye problems such as glaucoma, cataracts, floaters, dry eye Just to mention but a few. With the improved technology, ophthalmology and optical surgery can correct these eye defects making it a less serious problem nowadays. Age-related hearing loss called presbycusis is one of the most known health problems of the elderly (Helzner et al., 2005). It is normally corrected through the use of hearing aids. Speech and language are also other problems. Smell and taste are also affected by old age. Age does contribute to some atrophy of olfactory fibers in the nose (Harvard Men’s Health Watch, 2004). The skeletal system can also change with age. It has been observed that diseases of the bone system result due to changes in collagen in the bones as one ages. Osteoporosis and arthritis are examples f diseases of the bone that come with age. Proper intake of Calcium and Vitamin D can help reduces the occurrence of these defects. The skin of an elderly person becomes loose and elastic. The skin appears darker d coarser. Wrinkles and stretch marks begin to show. Darkness under the eye forms and the skin becomes generally pale. Years of exposure to the sun contributes to these changes and also loss of body fats reduces the pressure against the skin causing it to sag. Loss of teeth is another key physical change among the elderly as a result of gum diseases. This to a considerable extent affects the self image of an individual. Dentures correct this, but people are also being educated on the proper intake of fluorides so as to prevent the loss of teeth. Hair changes are also extremely much evident. Grayness and stiffness of hair, baldness and facial hair in women are a common physical change in old age and is as a result of hormonal changes. Locomotion also becomes quite a problem.

 

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