[Get Solution] Impartiality and Universality

A)History of Ethics – When we think of philosophers, ethicists, names such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, Aquinas, Kant, Rawls come to mind.  In other words, men.  With rare exceptions (redundant, I know – just making a point), ethics history is rife with male authors.  It would follow that if men are doing about 99% of the writing, who’s doing the reading?  And teaching?  Hmmm – probably men?  Presumably, the history may be charted by the following: 1 – the starting point  –  the isolated individual, how individuals should treat one another, and ethics of strangers, at war with one another, but need some direction.2 – the social contract theory – how isolated individuals entered into moral relationships, moving from autonomous moral agents into a harmonious existence with one another.  For a good example of how entrenched a perspective had become, Google Rousseau’s educational track “Emile” (1762), and see how much has not changed.  Given that, the resulting philosophical underpinnings we have are:3 – impartiality and universality – Kant – the ideal rational moral agent acts on maxims that can be universalized; the utilitarian works as the ideal impartial calculator.  And life grows and interweaves itself among those markers.But what if it were possible to cast a different light upon this course of life?1 – the starting point – the mother/child combination instead of the isolated individual.  A kind of connectedness instead of a stranger with the associated ramifications [Carolyn Whitbeck].2 – a building of trust, as distinct from a contractual idea [Annette Baier].3 – the resulting reliance on the relationship instead of impartiality and universality [Carol Gilligan].  Is Lioi advocating the overthrow of all previous ethical work? Of course not.  Just add this to it.  Another overlay.  Another light with which to view the moral life.B)Ethics of Care – as a gathering response to the male-oriented history of ethics, Carol Gilligan (1982) published “In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development.”  Ok, so it wasn’t about ethics as such, but it did shine a different light on a whole bunch of areas: philosophy, religion, clinical psychology, political science, literature, art criticism.  Women began finding their voices in every field.  The metaphor of voice became the symbol, the marker, the focal point.  Voice over theory became the perspective.  Voice was potentially more capable of integrating differences harmoniously.  There’s no individuality in theory.  In voice, we have tone, texture.  Voice combines both emotion and content – how as well as what is said.  Voice is not true or false, but strong or weak, lilting or deep, hesitant, or confident.  Voices may be different without excluding one another, as in singers in a chorus. Another way of appreciating the theory-voice transformation is by using the “Heinz Dilemma:”  Heinz’s wife is critically ill with a rare form of cancer.  The only druggist who has a possible cure is charging an outrageous amount of money which Heinz just doesn’t have.  The ‘traditional’ question posed is:  should Heinz steal the drug?  Why or why not?  The ‘traditional’ expected response was yes or no and a reason.  That’s what boys responded (for example, human life is more valuable than property).  But when girls were asked, the result was a conversation.  The girls asked questions: couldn’t Heinz get a loan?  Work out a payment plan?  They looked for hidden alternatives.  They were offering a different view of moral discourse.  Instead of staking a position and reasons, ethical discourse is primarily a conversation, an interchange – leading to the conclusion that morality is primarily about caring.C)Feminist Moral Theory – begins with the awareness of women’s oppression and argues for corrective policies. Here are four conditions that must be met for an ethical theory to count as Feminist Theory [Alison Jaggar].1—must be sensitive to gender inequality, never beginning with the assumption that men and women are similarly situated.2—must understand individual actions within the larger context of broader social practices.3—must be able to provide guidance to issues traditionally seen as within the private domain, such as personal relationships and family issues.4—must take the moral experiences of women seriously, though not, of course, uncritically. It’s clear that issues of gender involve issues of power.  Feminist Ethics maintains the importance of relationships but refuses to cooperate with any efforts to confine women within traditional patriarchal power relationships.  As philosophers take the moral experiences of women seriously, they begin to see that there are a number of previously neglected moral issues that merit attention.  In many cases, these can be understood through the application of traditional moral concepts in new contexts.  The following is what I refer to as Emergent Issues – practices and occasions that have arisen, but need constant attention: Distinction between public and private (you’ll notice that much has changed) – private used to mean the realm of women, children, beyond the realm of moral protection: childrearing responsibility, incest, child abuse, domestic violence – experienced by the powerless. Justice and family issues – [Justice, Gender and the Family” by Susan Moller Okin] – just distribution of responsibilities, equal opportunity in the workplace, employment history.Violence and powerlessness – psychological and physical. Seeing the world in terms of relationships makes evil the destruction of relationships. Sexism – stereotyping women and devaluing their moral experience, making women less capable. Somehow embedded in our culture.  Consider the word “fuck”  – used as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective, exclamation.  As a legitimate ancient Anglo-Saxon word which has descended into the category of words to be avoided, it’s now used to shock – and even that is lessening.  But behind its almost inadvertent use, today is the disturbing picture of sexual intercourse as a hurtful activity that men inflict upon women. Sexual harassment – seeking to extract sexual ‘favors’, using threats for compliance. Pornography – reinforces sexist attitudes, but feminist philosophers are committed to free speech; feminists agree that porn is offensive; some [Catherine MacKinnon] maintain that porn is action, therefore should not be shielded by free speech laws. Feminization of poverty – poverty as a condition that women are more likely to encounter than men. Equal pay for equal work?  Equal pay for comparable work?  Distribution of pension after divorce?Final Comments:  We all live in the same world.  Women’s moral voices spur reassessing traditional moral theory, expanding our stock of fundamental concepts.  The feminist moral theory opens up the possibility of a richer, more diverse moral conversation. Assignment: Watch the movie “North Country”  (note instances of emergent issues)Essay: take three emergent issues from this Module 12 posting and link them to specific scenes from the film using the language and graphic representation of the film.  An “A” paper will include them; avoidance of these terms and pictures glosses over the impact that they have in the real life of real people. For more information read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impartiality

 

So much stress and so little time? Take care of yourself: let us help you with your task on
[Get Solution] Impartiality and Universality
Get a 20% Discount on this Paper
Get Help Now

 

So much stress and so little time? We’ve got you covered. Get your paper proofread, edited or written from scratch within the tight deadline.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
s
Get personalized services with Do My Homeworkk
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Anthropology
Thank you
Customer 452445, August 20th, 2021
M5A1 Outline and Thesis
Paper was late
Customer 452457, November 15th, 2021
Classic English Literature
Much appreciated - thank you very much!
Customer 452493, April 13th, 2022
Nursing
Looks good. Thank you!!!
Customer 452503, April 25th, 2022
Chemistry
Excellent services!
Customer 452443, November 11th, 2021
Economics
Although the paper did not make it at the requested time, the writer did reach out to me and asked for a short extension which I was okay with.
Customer 452493, March 16th, 2022
Leadership Studies
This is great! Thanks a bunch
Customer 452485, March 1st, 2022
Finance
Excellent. Thnk you
Customer 452443, October 22nd, 2021
Philosophy
The paper was done to my satisfaction. Thnk you.
Customer 452443, November 18th, 2021
Classic English Literature
THANK YOU SO MUCH!!!! :)
Customer 452493, April 19th, 2022
Business and administrative studies
Thank you so much for your help!!!!!
Customer 452519, November 9th, 2022
Economics
Thank you - much appreciated!
Customer 452493, April 2nd, 2022
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Order your essay today and save 15% with the discount code ESSAYHELP