Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness

Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Bachelor of Commerce Programme Organizational Behaviour Dr Jan P Bosman, Ph.D The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management (Pty) Ltd Registered with the Department of Education as a private higher education institution under the Higher Education Act, 1997. Registration No. 2004/ HE07/003 THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE BACHELORS OF COMMERCE NQF LEVEL 6 ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Leadership Power and Influence The Da Vinci Institute for Technology Management (Pty) Ltd Registered with the Department of Education as a private higher education institution under the Higher Education Act, 1997. Registration No. 2004/HE07/003 DMC PROCESS DESIGN Leadership Power and Influence Your Leadership Challenge After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Use power and politics to help accomplish important organizational goals. 2. Practice aspects of charismatic leadership by pursuing a vision or idea that you care deeply about and want to share with others. 3. Apply the concepts that distinguish transformational from transactional leadership. 4. Use coalitional leadership to build alliances that can help you achieve important goals for the organization. 5. Identify types and sources of power in organizations and know how to increase power through political activity. 6. Describe structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames of reference and identify your dominant leadership frame. 7. Use the influence tactics of rational persuasion, friendliness, reciprocity, developing allies, direct appeal, and scarcity. 4 | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE Chapter Outline Three Kinds of Influential Leadership Power, Influence, and Leadership Sources of Leader Power Increasing Power Through Political Activity Ethical Considerations in Using Power and Politics In the Lead Jim Goetz, ServiceMaster Steve Jobs, Apple Sheila Bair, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Paul Wolfowitz, World Bank Leader’s Self-Insight Transformational Leadership Have You Got Charisma? Your Leadership Orientation Leader’s Bookshelf Influencer: The Power to Change Anything Leadership at Work Circle of Influence Leadership Development: Cases for Analysis The Unhealthy Hospital Waite Pharmaceuticals DA VINCI INSTITUTE | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | 5 DMC PROCESS DESIGN How did a poor African-American girl growing up with a single mom in inner-city Chicago turn into one of the most recognized names in financial services? Intelligence, hard work, integrity, and a strong work ethic are part of the answer. But what has really helped Mellody Hobson not only survive but thrive in the white male–dominated world of investing is her political skill. Hobson, who is today president of mutual fund company Ariel Investments, started at Ariel as a student intern and joined full time after college graduation. She immediately started networking, making friends and supporters that she’s kept to this day. Hobson hangs out with celebrities like George Lucas and Ciara, enjoys talking with teachers and school children on Chicago’s South Side, counts Warren Buffett, Dick Parsons, and Jamie Dimon among her friends, sits on the boards of Estée Lauder, Starbucks, and the Chicago Public Library, has hosted fundraisers for Barack Obama since his first Senate campaign, worked with Richard Daley to improve Chicago public schools, and loves mingling with Formula One race fans, where she cheers on Lewis Hamilton, the first black racer. “She finds a way to find a connection with virtually anyone,” says David Geffen, cofounder of Dreamworks, where Hobson also sits on the board. Hobson’s networking skill has helped her achieve what she wants for herself and for Ariel Investments. Even when she was a 25-year-old new employee, Hobson was able to influence Ariel founder John Rogers and board members regarding a critical strategic decision—to strengthen Ariel as a brand focused on value investing by separating it from the Calvert Group, which focused on social investing (the two firms were involved in a joint venture). Rogers says he was initially shocked by Hobson’s boldness, but Hobson used information, networking, and personal persuasion to convince him it was the right decision. “She went out and did a lot of heavy lifting and convinced our board and myself it was the right thing to do.”1 Mellody Hobson had little formal power as a young Ariel employee, but she already understood how to use politics and influence to get things done. Successful leaders like Hobson take the time to build relationships both inside and outside the organization and to talk informally about important projects and priorities. All leaders use power and influence to have an impact on their organizations. This chapter explores the topic of leadership power and influence in detail. The chapter opens with a consideration of three types of influential leadership. We next examine what we mean by the terms power and influence, consider different leader frames of reference that affect how leaders think about and use power, look at some sources and types of power, and outline ways leaders exercise power and influence through political activity. Finally, we briefly consider some ethical aspects of using power and influence. Three Kinds of Influential Leadership New leaders often think of leadership power as something granted by an organization through the leader’s position. However, leaders also have power that doesn’t depend on job authority, 6 | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE and they influence people through a variety of means. Three types of influential leadership that rely on a leader’s personal characteristics and relationships rather than on a formal position of authority are transformational, charismatic, and coalitional leadership. Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership is characterized by the ability to bring about significant change in both followers and the organization. Transformational leaders have the ability to lead changes in an organization’s vision, strategy, and culture as well as promote innovation in products and technologies. One way to understand transformational leadership is to compare it to transactional leadership.2 The basis of transactional leadership is a transaction or exchange process between leaders and followers. The transactional leader recognizes followers’ needs and desires and then clarifies how those needs and desires will be satisfied in exchange for meeting specified objectives or performing certain duties. Thus, followers receive rewards for job performance, whereas leaders benefit from the completion of tasks. Transactional leaders focus on the present and excel at keeping the organization running smoothly and efficiently. They are good at traditional management functions such as planning and budgeting and generally focus on the impersonal aspects of job performance. Transactional leadership can be quite effective. However, because it involves a commitment to “follow the rules,” transactional leadership maintains stability within the organization rather than promoting change. Transactional skills are important for all leaders. However, in a world in which success often depends on continuous change, organizations also need transformational leadership.3 Rather than analyzing and controlling specific transactions with followers using rules, directions, and incentives, transformational leadership focuses on intangible qualities such as vision, shared values, and ideas in order to build relationships, give larger meaning to separate activities, and provide common ground to enlist followers in the change process. Transformational leadership is based on the personal values, beliefs, and qualities of the leader rather than on an exchange process between leaders and followers. Studies support the idea that transformational leadership has a positive impact on follower development, performance, and even organizational profitability.4 Moreover, transformational leadership skills can be learned and are not ingrained personality characteristics. Transformational leadership differs from transactional leadership in four significant areas.5 1. Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness. Transformational leadership develops followers into leaders. Instead of strictly controlling people, transformational leaders give followers greater freedom to control their own behavior. Transformational leadership rallies people around a mission and vision and defines the boundaries within which followers can operate to accomplish goals. The transDA VINCI INSTITUTE | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | 7 DMC PROCESS DESIGN formational leader arouses in followers an awareness of problems and issues and helps people look at things in new ways so that productive change can happen. 2. Transformational leadership elevates the concerns of followers from lower-level physical needs (such as for safety and security) to higher-level psychological needs (such as for self-esteem and self-actualization). Lower-level needs are met through adequate wages, safe working conditions, and other considerations, but the transformational leader also pays attention to each individual’s need for growth and development. Therefore, the leader sets examples and assigns tasks not only to meet immediate needs but also to elevate followers’ needs and abilities to a higher level and link them to the organization’s mission. Transformational leaders change followers so that they are empowered to change the organization. 3. Transformational leadership inspires followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the group. Transformational leaders motivate people to do more than originally expected. They make followers aware of the importance of change goals and outcomes and, in turn, enable them to transcend their own immediate interests for the sake of the whole organization. 4. Transformational leadership paints a vision of a desired future state and communicates it in a way that makes the pain of change worth the effort.6 The most significant role of the transformational leader may be to find a vision for the organization that is significantly better than the old one and to enlist others in sharing the dream. It is the vision that launches people into action and provides the basis for the other aspects of transformational leadership we have just discussed. Change can happen only when people have a sense of purpose as well as a desirable picture of where the organization is going. Without vision, there can be no transformation. Effective leaders exhibit both transactional and transformational leadership patterns. They accentuate not only their abilities to build a vision and empower and energize others, but also the transactional skills of designing structures, control systems, and reward systems that can help people achieve the vision.7 Charismatic Leadership Charisma has been called “a fire that ignites followers’ energy and commitment, producing results above and beyond the call of duty.”8 Charismatic leaders have an emotional impact on people and inspire them to do more than they would normally do, despite obstacles and personal sacrifice. They may speak emotionally about putting themselves on the line for the sake of a cause and they are perceived as people who persist in spite of great odds against them. Charismatic leaders often emerge in troubled times, whether in society or in organiza8 | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE tions, because a strong, inspiring personality can help to reduce stress and anxiety among followers. For example, Amr Khaled emerged as a young, charismatic Muslim religious leader in Egypt during the Mideast crisis of the early twenty-first century. Khaled’s sermons, delivered in an emotional, impassioned manner, touched people who were searching for a moderate approach to living as a good Muslim.9 Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership are not the same. Whereas transformational leadership seeks to increase follower engagement and empowerment, charismatic leadership typically instills both awe and submission in followers.10 Followers admire both charismatic and transformational leaders, want to identify with them, and have a high degree of trust in them. However, transformational leadership motivates people not just to follow the leader personally, but also to believe in the need for change and be willing to make sacrifices for the sake of the vision rather than just out of admiration for the leader. Charisma can be used for good or ill, but applied wisely and ethically, it can lift the entire organization’s level of energy and performance. Charismatic leaders can raise people’s consciousness about new possibilities and motivate them to transcend their own interests for the sake of the team, department, or organization. Although charisma itself cannot be learned, there are aspects of charismatic leadership that anyone can use. For one thing, charisma comes from pursuing activities that you have a true passion for.11 Charismatic leaders are engaging their emotions in everyday work life, which makes them energetic, enthusiastic, and attractive to others.Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness. Their passion for a mission inspires people to follow them and galvanizes people to action. Consider Martin Luther King, Jr., and his passion for the cause of equality. One organizational leader with this type of passion is Major Tony Burgess, the U.S. Army tactical officer attached on a full-time basis to Company C-2 at West Point. Burgess says he “fell in love with leading,” and his passion for commanding an Army company shows in his leadership.12 A number of studies have identified the unique qualities of charismatic leaders, documented the impact they have on followers, and described the behaviors that help them achieve remarkable results.13 Exhibit 12.1 compares distinguishing characteristics of charismatic and noncharismatic leaders.14 Charismatic leaders create an atmosphere of change and articulate an idealized vision of a better future. They have an ability to communicate complex ideas and goals in clear, compelling ways, so that people understand and identify with their message. Charismatic leaders also act in unconventional ways and use unconventional means to transcend the status quo and create change. The final quality shared by charismatic leaders is that their source of influence comes from personal characteristics rather than a formal position of authority. People admire, respect, and identify with the leader and want to be like him or her. Although charismatic leaders may be in formal positions of authority, charismatic leadership transcends formal organizational position because the leader’s influence is based on personal qualities rather than the DA VINCI INSTITUTE | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | 9 DMC PROCESS DESIGN power and authority granted by the organization. Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness. Coalitional Leadership Transformational and charismatic leadership both suggest it is the individual leader who acts as a catalyst for bringing about valuable change toward achieving a goal or vision. Yet in most cases, successful change results from a coalition of people rather than the efforts of a single leader. Coalitional leadership involves building a coalition of people who support the leader’s goals and can help influence others to implement the leader’s decisions and achieve the goals.15 Coalitional leaders observe and understand patterns of interaction and influence in the organization. They are skilled at developing relationships with a broad network of people and can adapt their behavior and approach to diverse people and situations. Coalitional leaders develop positive relationships both within and outside the organization, and they spend time learning others’ views and building mutually beneficial alliances. There are four steps for effective coalitional leadership:16 1. Coalitional leaders do lots of interviews. Leaders conduct informal interviews with people from all across the organization to gather information and get a clear sense of the challenges and opportunities they face. Asking open-ended questions and listening to others enables the leader to learn about the needs and goals of others, find out who believes in and supports the change, who might be opposed and why, and who has ideas, opinions, and expertise that can contribute to accomplishing the desired goals. In addition to interviews, leaders talk informally with people whenever they get a chance. Essay: Common Misconception of Mental Illness. Consider the following example from ServiceMaster. 2. Coalitional leaders visit customers and other stakeholders. Coalitional leaders also solicit the views and input of customers as well as other potentially influential stakeholders, such as board members, government agencies, creditors, or others. Jan Frank found that this was a big part of her job bringing change to California’s State Compensation Insurance Fund, which receives no taxpayer money but is treated as an arm of state government. When Frank took over in 2007, the agency was reeling from financial scandal, ethical violations, and a criminal investigation. In addition to talking with managers, employees, and board members about her plans and goals for repairing the agency’s credibility, Frank also met regularly with lawmakers and regulators to solicit their input regarding operations. She knew their support was crucial to implementing her plans and achieving what she wanted for the agency.18 3. Coalitional leaders develop a map of stakeholder buy-in. Leaders typically find that there are some people who strongly support their goals and plans, some who adamantly oppose them, and a large percentage who could swing either way. As illustrated in Exhibit 10 | MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP ODYSSEY | THE DA VINCI INSTITUTE 12.2, in mapping the level of buy-in for any significant change, about 10 percent of people can typically be classified as advocates, those stakeholders inside and outside the organization who are strong supporters and will help lead the change effort. Another 10 percent might be partners, who support and encourage the change but will not actively lead it. Twenty percent are typically strongly opposed to the change. These resisters might even disrupt or sabotage change efforts. The remaining 60 percent are classified as observers because they have a neutral attitude toward the proposed ideas and changes.19 4. Coalitional leaders break down barriers and promote cross-silo cooperation. The final critical step in coalitional leadership is continually breaking down barriers and promoting cooperation and collaboration across departments, divisions, and levels. For example, when Colin Powell was U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he regularly brought together the heads of the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines so they could understand one another’s viewpoints.20 Cross-enterprise understanding and cooperation is essential to achieving a larger vision. Power, Influence, and Leadership All leadership relies on the use of power to influence others and get things done.21 Power is often defined as the potential ability of one person to influence others to carry out orders22 or to do something they otherwise would not have done.23 Other definitions stress that power is the ability to achieve goals or outcomes that power holders desire.24 The achievement of desired outcomes is the basis of the definition used here. Power is the potential ability of one person in an organization to influence other people to bring about desired outcomes. It is the potential to influence others within the organization with the goal of attaining desired outcomes for power holders. Potential power is realized through the processes of politics and influence.25 Influence refers to the effect a person’s actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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