Environmental and nutritional factors
BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 1BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 7Biology AssignmentStudents NameInstitution AffiliateCourseInstructorDateBiology AssignmentQuestion 1Environmental and nutritional factors significantly influence feed intake in poultry and consequently production in the long run. However, the factors vary depending on the poultry type or the reason for their rearing, among other factors. Ensuring there is a conducive environment and availing the required nutrients in the right measurements helps boost their ability to improve productivity. The main environmental factors capable of influencing the change of appetite and voluntary intake of feed in poultry entails adequate ventilation, conducive temperatures, and sufficient lighting of the farmer’s facility for raising the poultry (Veldkamp et al., 2005).Higher temperatures, especially for long hours, have previously proved to bear the most striking impact on feed consumption. Ensuring that the ambient or room temperature meets the specifications recommended for the type of poultry helps lower the associable stress, and thus, feed intake rates increases. Sufficient lighting and the lighting color is another influencing environmental factor. Adhering to useful lighting patterns increases the efficiency of feed intake. The birds empty their digestive tracks during the dark periods, enhancing the appetite and voluntary feed consumption. Ventilation, another environmental factor, keeps the facility and surroundings free of bad smell, providing a conducive environment for voluntary feed intake.The nutritional factors like the energy content of the feeds and admission in the right nutrient proportions, among other factors, also may alter the feeding habits of the poultry. Energy, a component of the energy-yielding nutrients, influences the changes in the voluntary intake and appetite in poultry in various ways, especially in broiler chickens. The increasing dietary-energy levels force the poultry to satisfy their energy requirements through decreasing intake, and the contrary results in high levels of consumption. Using a palatable composition or admission of the right amount of ingredients also positively influences how the birds visit the feeding points. Providing excessive components leads to the development of side effects like an irritation to the pulmonary tissues caused by excess amino acids (Mbajiorgu et al., 2011). The side effects associated with excess or imbalanced ingredients lowers the appetite and voluntary feed intake.Question 2Anti-nutritional factors entail substances whose presence in the animal water or feed lower the availability or percentage of a nutrient or several nutrients, affecting the animal’s performance and growth. The substances commonly in edible plants entail tannins, gossypol, protease inhibitors, and phytic acids, which only contribute to the animal feed’s bulkiness (Samtiya et al., 2020). Another instance of anti-nutritional factors is the bonds found in cellulose, a chain of glucose fragments. Edible plants contain soluble and insoluble anti-nutritional elements, whose percentage is subjected to the maturity stage and the plant type.It is recommendable to lower the prevalence of anti-nutritional factors in feed for non-ruminant animals following their side effects in the digestion tract. The nutrients affect the material’s viscosity in the animal’s tract and adversely affect mineral utilization and the digestive enzymes’ working and generally results in reduced-feed efficiency, threatening high productivity. If effectively followed during the processing process, technological and traditional mechanisms can eliminate or lower the content of the anti-nutritional factors in the feed for non-ruminants. The applicable processing methods and techniques used to reduce the content entails soaking, extrusion, germination, fermentation, and using processing chemical or chemical modification, among other innovative approaches (Bajpai et al., 2005).The use of chemicals or chemical modification is among the standard methods. The approach entails treatment with chemical components. Extrusion entails passing the feed through controlled and higher temperatures, pressure for short periods, and shear processing. Soaking is the exposure to water and helps in eliminating the soluble factors. The fermentation process, which is known for enhancing the nutrition value of animal feed, also reduces the content of several anti-nutritional factors, including phytic acids, protease inhibitors, tannins, and cereal polyphenols; elements which germination also helps to lower. Farmers and the producers should ensure that the procedures are effectively followed to reduce the anti-nutritional factors’ content, which helps curb the associable demerits to the animals’ health and performance.Question 3The superficial total tract-digestibility of proteins does not provide a single implication or determiner of optimal protein utilization in pigs due to various reasons. The approach does not measure the terminal ileum’s unabsorbed amount, implying a partial or rough estimation. Total tract-digestibility in the tract refers to distinguishing the percentage of the amino acids ingested in the pig’s body and the amount recovered from the excretions. Total tract-digestibility does not translate to maximum utilization of the proteins in the body. The pigs’ amino acid content cannot match the amount supplied in the dietary proteins following the various possible losses in the digestion process into microbes and excretion (Kerr & Shurson, 2013). Microbes may deaminate a certain percentage of amino acids right in the large intestine, with subsequent absorption and production of ammonia that gets excreted as urea, which is hard to account for using the total tract-digestibility concept.Amino acids availability describes the amount digested, content absorbed for utilization, and the percentage available in the appropriate form for practical protein synthesis. The traditional digestibility approach is applicable in measuring the availability, although it only provides fair estimates and not valid actual content values. The total tract-digestibility process is vulnerable because it does not cater for endogenous amino acids that are not absorbed in the small intestine and thus lost. The availability of the anti-nutritional factors may also adversely affect the amino acids’ ingestion efficiency and therefore, utilizing the approach to determine complete utilization becomes challenging.Ileal digestibility, especially the standard approach, is an objective approach that can help solve the issue. SID (Standardized Ileal Digestibility) considers the difference between the amounts ingested that recovered in the ileum and from the digestion and the basal endogenous amino acid losses that the total tract-digestibility does not take into considerations while facilitating the evaluation (Zhang & Adeola, 2017). It is recommendable to adopt a system of assessment featuring all the necessary regards to ensure that the established amounts are correct and reliable.Question 4Pigs need the energy to retain normal body functions, reproduce and grow, requiring the farmers to ensure that they get the correct answers when calculating their energy requirements. During the decision-making process to acquire the most reliable feeds that meet the pigs’ energy requirements, it is recommendable to use estimation systems that can offer valid answers to assure sufficient growth and reproduction (Patience et al., 2015). The metabolic rate refers to the overall degree of tissue oxidation of the fuels by the various body organs. It is quite possible to use the metabolic rates to estimate the pig’s diet’s metabolizable energy (ME), though associated with several challenges. The metabolizable energy describes the power of a feed that enables the pig to grow and live. The estimation is developed from the subtraction of the fecal or urinary energy loss from the actual digestible energy.There are several considerations to make when depending on the individual pigs’ metabolic rate to measure the metabolizable energy in the provided diet. It is essential to consider whether the pig or the sample size is in its best health condition before moving to measure the oxidation rates. Poor healthy conditions adversely affect the metabolic rate and possibly develop wrong insights on the subject. It is also recommendable to ensure that the pigs feed on the correct proportions to ensure optimal metabolic utilization and perform the estimation in a controlled environment, possessing all the desired features.The considerations help determine whether all the feed efficiency features are evident from the pigs’ overview and their feeding systems to clear any form of errors before proceeding to the estimation. However, there are several challenges associated with the practice. It is not guaranteed that all the energy consumed through the various nutrients is wholly absorbed in the body. Considering energy lost through the fecal matter or urine is quite challenging and, in some cases, impossible (Noblet, 2000). It is also problematic because a significant percentage of energy might get lost through excessive heat caused by the nutrient metabolisms’ inefficiencies following excessive consumption.