EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion

EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Can you fix this prospectus so it can be approved by the committee? Prospectus Is there a relationship between students’ level of motivation to perform academically and students’ level of academic performance in a language arts classroom? Shenita Russell EdD Doctoral Study– Educational Leadership A0004900 Prospectus: Is there a relationship between students’ level of motivation to perform academically and students’ level of academic performance in a language arts classroom? Problem Statement A lack of student motivation is a concern within public school districts in the elementary, middle and high school classroom setting (Hossainy, 2012). While a lack of student motivation is not easy to define, it is easy to observe (Thoman, 2013). Recent reports from educational researchers within the US Department of Education recognize the unmotivated student as one whose attitude toward school is a lack of interest or concern (NCES, 2010). The lack of interest or concern is demonstrated in the avoidance of school work and a level of disinterest in the educational environment (Terry, 2010). The national concern for a lack of student motivation within the educational environment prompted an action plan for the development of a model of learning. In 2010, educational researchers within the US Department of Education developed an action plan known as The National Education Technology Plan 2010 (NETP). The model of learning described in the action plan necessitates the need for engaging and empowering learning experiences for all learners. The model suggests that educators focus what and how they teach to match what students need to know, how they learn, where and when they will learn, and who needs to learn. The model was designed to incorporate state-of-the art technology into the learning environment to enable, motivate, and inspire all students, regardless of background, languages, or disabilities, to achieve, thus fostering continuous and lifelong learning (NCES, 2010). The National Center for School Engagement (NCSE) partnered with school districts, law enforcements, the courts, and state and federal agencies to support youth and their families in improving student motivation and engagement within the learning environment. In an effort to improve student motivation and resolve the issues concerning low academic achievement, the purpose of the study was to examine how motivation is defined and how to measure student motivation. The study used twenty-one instruments and focused on the age ranges of the participants of the study. Through data collection analysis, researchers were able to identify a decline in student motivation at both the middle and high school level (NCSE, 2009). Even more recently, the reports from educational researchers from state’s Department of Education across the country has determined best practices in instructional delivery as one of the essential components to motivating and preparing students for college and career readiness. Results from the reports have acknowledged the significance of student motivation for aiding student academic success in these college and career readiness programs. From 2012-2014, educational researchers within state’s Department of Education worked to develop an educational plan referred to as Task Based Learning (TBL). The framework for TBL comprised of pre-task activities, a task cycle and language focus all designed to provide instruction that is engaging and motivating. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion The framework requires a shift from student-based to task-based learning suggesting that educators create tasks that prompt students to use and apply learning to 21st century scenarios (The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, 2015). The U.S. Department of Education reported on a study conducted by researchers from the University of Western Sydney. The focus of the report was to bring awareness to the need to consider student motivation, especially as it relates to male students. The purpose of the project study performed by researchers from the University of Western Sydney was to inform educational best practices for teachers and to aid development of school curriculum designed to address the needs of male students in the elementary and middle grades. Research participants consisted of case studies from fifteen different schools. The conceptual framework of the study was developed by University of Western Sydney researchers, Dr. Andrew Martin and Dr. Geoff Munns (Munns, 2004; Munns & Martin, 2005) was the MeE Framework. The Motivation, engagement, Engagement Framework was used as part of the project analysis of student motivation and engagement. Through data collection and analysis, researchers were able to determine key psychological and sociological factors that contributed to motivation in male students. Some of the strategies identified included learning environments in which students were given whole-class tasks to complete and learning environments in which student motivation was a school-based initiative (Munns & Martin, 2005). Currently, questions concerning why students remain unmotivated in the classroom is a focus of recent educational research with the state of Georgia (McQuown, 2011). Educational research within the Georgia Department of Education suggests that a lack of student motivation may be associated with students’ intrinsic motivation to perform well in the classroom and on high stakes assessments. The reports from the educational research indicate that whether intrinsic motivation was high or low for a student, there was some bearing on student achievement being high or low for that student (Thoman, 2013). Under the premise of student motivation and accountability, the educational researchers within the Georgia Department of Education (GADOE) worked to create a rigorous college and career readiness curriculum (adapted from Common Core) along with a teacher effective measurement system (TEMS) designed to ensure that instructional delivery was engaging and motivating for all students. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Results from data collection of state mandated high stakes assessments centered on standards-based instructional delivery utilizing the rigorous curriculum and teacher evaluations determined student achievement is linked to student motivation and school accountability (Schraw, 2010). Data collection results also indicate the growing concern regarding a lack of student motivation in the middle grades (6th-8th) (GADOE, 2015). At the local level, the concern of a lack of student motivation focuses on the middle grades because the middles grades have proven to consist of being a pivotal academic time for students in which assessment scores in content areas such as language arts and classroom performance have a bearing on retention, classroom placement and college and career readiness indicators at the high school level (McQuown, 2011). Public school systems within the state of Georgia, such as, Atlanta Public Schools (APS), have worked to analyze instructional best practices designed to motivate and engage students in the content required for college and career readiness. Unfortunately, many educators are not aware of instructional strategies for measuring and fostering student motivation, especially within the middle school classroom (APS, 2014). Purpose The rationale for the correlational study is to determine if there is a relationship between student’s level of motivation and student’s level of academic achievement in middle grades language arts classroom. Significance The proposed research study is significant because it has the potential to contribute to existing theories on the correlation between levels of student motivation and levels of student academic success. Those who will benefit from the study are students, teachers, school administrators and school board officials. School board officials will benefit from the study by gaining an understanding into what motivates students and thus what them to make policy changes on curriculum mandates. If school officials make policy changes to curriculum design that takes student motivation into consideration, the potential exists for a lack of student motivation to decrease. Until changes in school policies such as No Child Left Behind (2001), Common Core (2009) and even more recently, Teacher Keys Effectiveness System (2012), school board officials did not focus on student performance (Gemberling, Smith, & Villani, 2009; Marzano & Waters, 2009). Student academic achievement and student performance was primarily under the guide of the state superintendent and staff. The paradigm shift in school accountability has moved toward localized control. School board officials now share in the responsibility of student learning and are held accountable for student academic performance, most commonly through the use of standardized testing (Gemberling et al, 2009; Marzano & Waters, 2009). Student performance results are often reported to state authorities to determine if changes to the curriculum and/or teacher training and evaluations are necessary. Additionally, performance results are shared with community members as a way of determining the effectiveness of school and board leadership. With changes to the curriculum design that take student motivation into consideration, teachers may be able to effectively implement strategies to motivate students to learn. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Teachers’ abilities to motivate students to learn has been termed teacher self-efficacy. Research studies on teacher self-efficacy have used the conceptual framework of Bandura’s (1994, 2002) notion of self-efficacy. Teacher self-efficacy has been defined as the level of competency and level of confidence a teacher has in his or her ability to promote students’ learning (Bandura, 1994). According to a research study conducted by Skaalvik & Skaalvik (2010), teachers with high self-efficacy will implement strategies to motivate students to learn such as providing opportunities for student communication by using a variety of learning strategies and tasks to meet the needs of all learners (working individually, in pairs, and in groups). Results from the study also indicate that teachers with high level of self-efficacy are more likely to divide the class into small groups rather than teaching the class as a whole, thereby allowing the opportunity for more individualized instruction (Tschannen-Moran, 2010) Additionally, students will benefit from a learning environment that fosters behaviors that contribute to motivating students resulting in academic success. According to Gardner’s motivation theory (1985) students are motivated to learn and achieve when they perceive their teachers care about them. Findings from the case study suggest the concept of teachers who care create learning environments that promote democratic interaction styles, developing expectations for student behavior in light of individual differences, modeling a “caring” attitude toward their own work, and providing constructive feedback. Researchers with Stanford University also conducted a research study of a learning environment that takes student motivation into consideration. Results from data collection of the case study of middle grades students showed students benefited learning environments that take student motivation into consideration. Students benefit because they are encouraged to understand the content. The learning environment and instructional strategies were designed to treat students’ misunderstandings in the subject and different visual aids were utilized in order to make the subject more enticing and meaningful. Additionally, within the learning environment, students were given opportunities to engage in conversations and were given purposeful feedback rather than non-descriptive scores on assignments (Stipek et. al., 2002). More recently, researchers for the National Education Association (NEA) conducted studies on 21st century learners with regards to student motivation (NEA, 2013). Research results indicate that a lack of student motivation is more prevalent in non-lab content areas such as language arts, thus, further research to gain knowledge of how to motivate students in the non-lab content areas is significant. Knowledge of factors contributing to student motivation in the classroom as it relates to academic success may prove useful in guiding decisions made pertaining to curriculum and instruction (NEA, 2013The proposed research study is significant in understanding the impact of student motivation on academic achievement and posing questions to guide further studies concerning student academic success. Certainly, there is a need to understand what motivates students to perform well in the classroom and on high stakes assessments. Understanding what motivates students, how they are motivated and ways educators can utilize motivational strategies within their instructional practice is valuable in the field of education (NEA, 2013). Background Literature Educational trends such as accountability, college and career readiness, along with motivating the 21st century learner have shaped the current focus of curriculum standards and instructional delivery (NEA, 2013). The U.S Department of Education along with state Departments of Education researchers work to develop curriculum standards with an emphasis on rigor and instructional strategies that move students toward self-efficacy. As part of the attempt to ensure that students move towards self-efficacy, educational systems at the state and local level also have a goal of ensuring that every child can learn (US DOE, 2011). While the educational system at the national level is aiming towards ensuring that students are successful, there is also a concern at the state and local level that student motivation to perform at proficiency is declining (GA DOE, 2013). EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Research studies within state departments of education address the issues of moving toward self-efficacy, increasing rigor in the classroom and increasing student motivation. Student motivation defined The unmotivated student is one whose attitude toward school is a lack of interest or concern. The lack of interest or concern is demonstrated in the avoidance of school work and a level of disinterest in the educational environment (Terry, 2010). Recognizing the unmotivated student requires identifying the characteristics of a motivated student. The motivated student is one who is not afraid to try for fear of making mistakes. The motivated student will take risks and accept challenges versus viewing the sometimes routineness of learning tasks, this student will think outside of the box and produce work that is of quality. The motivated student is also one whose basic needs have been met thus equipping them to have a desire to learn and a willingness to complete the tasks at a level of proficiency. Conclusions from research suggest that student motivation can be defined on the basis of factors that contribute to motivation such as the students understanding that any amount of effort equates to a positive outcome on learning (McTigue, 2011). What causes a student to be self-motivated? A question often asked in the learning environment is how I can motivate this student to learn. The answer stems from the notion that the student must be self-motivated. Self-motivation means that the student enters the learning environment with a desire to be a part of the learning and willing to contribute to their own academic success. Research indicates that what motivates students to learn is a concept referred to as “voice and choice.” Another contributing factor to student motivation is engagement and learning tasks that pique the student’s curiosity. Research studies for varying grade levels concluded several key concepts that attribute to student motivation. The key concepts include student “voice and choice”, how relevant the learning is to the student’s interests, how involved the teacher is with the subject matter being taught, significance of feedback, varying instructional delivery and how often students are encouraged to complete tasks (Brophy, 2013) (Laskey, 2010). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Two schools of thought exist with regards to motivation. In other words, there are two types of motivated student. One type of motivated student is the one who is intrinsically motivated. The intrinsically motivated student is the one who wants to learn for the sake of learning. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Recognizing the intrinsically motivated student requires looking at the student who set goals for themselves, wants to be an integral part of the learning environment. The intrinsically motivated student comes prepared, seeks understanding and extends learning beyond the classroom. Conversely, the extrinsically motivated student is one who achieves for others. The extrinsically motivated student wants good grades to please parents or receive some reward or tangible gift. While the extrinsically motivated student will come to class prepared, the willingness to be a part of the learning environment is fostered by the desire to receive a reward for being in the learning environment versus contributing to the learning. One key concept states that when lessons appeal to a variety of learning styles and consist of varying modes of instructional delivery, students are engaged because they feel in control of their learning. Maurer, Allen, Gatch, Shankar, and Sturges (2013) examine intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students. The participant group in the study consisted of undergraduates in three different courses. The data collection instrument was archival data final course grades along with results of the Academic Motivation Scale which included questions about study habits and efforts. The implications of the results of the study indicated that each factor had a significant impact on student motivation at varying degrees. McTigue and Liew (2011) examined student motivation in a language arts classroom. The hypothesis of the study was the use of research-based strategies that foster self-efficacy within the classroom could also motivate reluctant middle school readers to perform in a language arts classroom. Bembenutty (2012) interviewed Professor Allan Wigfield who serves as chair of the Department of Human Development at the University of Maryland. The interview focused on Wigfield’s research on children’s motivation. The conclusion of the interview indicated that Wigfield’s studies determined that children’s motivation was developed based on the expectancy-value model of motivation Keklik and Erdem-Keklik (2012) expressed an opposing view of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Their study examined motivation within the high school setting. A participant group of 318 high school volunteers completed motivational and learning strategies questionnaires. Results of the questionnaires along with demographical data analyzed through data collection instruments ANOVA and MANOVA indicated that student motivation factors were limited to grade level. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Additionally, Leaper and Brown (2012) examined student motivation when social and personal factors were present. A participant group of 579 ethnically diverse teenage girls were selected for the study. Participants completed a questionnaire about their academic achievement, beliefs about their academic ability in Math/Science based classes versus English (liberal arts) based classes and values and experiences concerning school. The hypothesis in the study indicated that student motivation would vary from a Math/Science based class in comparison to an English (liberal arts) based class. The implications of the results of the study indicated that social and personal factors can have a positive effect on student motivation. Learning environments that motivate Creating a learning environment that motivates requires establishing what is known as sustained motivation. Achieving sustained motivation requires a partnership between teacher and student. While the teacher cannot make a student self-motivate, an environment can be created that fosters natural self-motivation. The motivating environment would provide opportunities for students to feel a sense of autonomy, a sense of a connection to the classroom and school and a sense of being capable of to master the challenges of school. The research has determined that teacher-student relationships while establishing a motivating learning environment are a factor in student motivation to perform within the classroom and on high stakes assessments. Bintz (2011) inquired through the use of the exploratory research design method the question of whether or not the curriculum is the problem, solution or both to factors relating to student motivation. The purpose of the study was to examine whether or not “way-in” books are an effective means to supplement curriculum requirements to motivate students in the middle school language arts classroom. Little (2012) analyzed the curriculum framework compared to gifted student motivation. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion The implications of the results of the study concludes with findings to answer the question of which strategies and learning environments best motivate students receiving advanced learning instruction. Thoman, Smith, Brown, Chase and Lee (2013) examined the correlation between student motivation and stereotyping. The study focuses on how stereotyping of underrepresented and over-stigmatized students effects their motivation in the classroom and beyond. The significance of the study expressed the connection between self-efficacy and feelings of a sense of belonging to the learning environment. Participants in the study were observed over long periods of time and it was determined that positive or negative experiences within the learning environment had a lasting effect on student motivation. McQuown (2011) examined factors that contributed to student academic success. The study participants included six fifth grade students who took part in pullout enrichment activities. Students selected for the study were ones who at the start of the experiment lacked motivation and focus. Data was collected in the form of teacher observations, student surveys, and tests. Results of the study were used to indicate whether or not being placed in an enrichment room was essential enough in increasing motivation and focus to yield student academic success. Hossainy, Zare, Hormozi, Shaghaghi and Kaveh (2012) conducted a study with a university undergraduate participant group of thirty-four randomly selected psychology majors. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that situated learning would increase learning and student motivation. The data collection process consisted of archival data from school achievement tests and questionnaire. The implications of the results of the study indicated that situated learning did increase learning and motivation when compared to lecture-based learning. Inkaya, Boz, and Erdur-Baker (2012) investigated the use of case-based learning (CBL) versus traditional chemistry instruction as a means of increasing student motivation. The participant group of forty-five 10th grade high school chemistry students was randomly selected. 25 students were a part of the experimental group (case-based learning) and 20 were a part of the control group (traditional instruction). As part of the study, both groups were given pre and posttests along with classroom instruction. The data collection instrument used to determine the results was a one-way MANOVA and a motivation questionnaire. The implications of the results of the study indicated that the use of CBL students showed gains in test scores and the questionnaire indicated that those experimental group participants were more motivated to learn in the classroom. Kucuk and Sahin (2013) examined the concept of learning centers in the context of a learning community as a means of increasing student motivation. The conceptual framework examined in the study was the Community of Inquiry (CoI) Framework as both a face to face and a blended (online and face to face) learning model. The participant group consisted of 109 undergraduate students who took part in the face to face (control) or blended (experimental) learning model. As part of the data collection process, students were given pre and posttests and an analysis of the content being delivered was conducted. Based on the results of the study, data collected did not indicate a significant difference in control group versus experimental group academic success; however, there was some significant difference in student motivation. Shankar-Brown explained in a research study the impact of incorporating photo journals as part of learning tasks within all content areas. The study’s participant group consisted of randomly selected middle school students who were identified as being reluctant learners. The study results were used to indicate the implications of utilizing photo journals as a learning tool and the impact they had on students, teachers and researchers. Shumow, Schmidt, and Zaleski (2013) discussed in their research study the correlation between student motivation and academic success during lab activities versus other classroom activities. The participants in the study were high school students. Each student was observed and work for the learning task was analyzed. Results of the study showed a comparison between student engagement and motivation when completing a lab-based activity versus a lecture-based activity. The results were also used to determine the increase in student learning was more present during lab-based activities as compared to lecture-based activities. Velez and Cano (2012) described the correlation between verbal and nonverbal cues and student motivation. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the importance of the task as related to students through verbal and nonverbal cues from the teacher compared to student motivation to complete the task. The significance of the study was to demonstrate to teachers that there was a positive relationship between verbal cues of the importance of the task and the increase in student motivation. The results of the study indicate the more teachers express the importance of a learning task; the more likely students were motivated to complete the task.EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Ziegler and Moeller (2012) examined self-regulating learning. The purpose of the study was to determine if the incorporation of portfolio-based assessments would increase self-regulated learning. The participant group consisted of 168 undergraduate students in either a French or Spanish class. The research design was quasi-experimental and was conducted over one semester. Students were given pre and post questionnaires to determine whether or not the incorporation of portfolios motivated students to actively participate in the learning process. The data collection results were used to analyze student performance on the portfolio assessments versus student performance on unit tests. The implications of the study results promote the use of portfolios to aid in student self-regulated learning. According to the literary review, teacher-student relationships are also essential in providing instructional strategies that motivate students to achieve self-efficacy. The research provides insight into the use of instructional strategies. Instructional strategies are designed to provide learning experiences that include rigor to move students toward self-efficacy and performing at proficiency on high-stakes assessments. In terms of student motivation, the literature review describes studies that determine the need for instructional strategies that provide students with choice and a voice as to the learning experiences they take part in. Framework The theoretical framework for this study will be Maslow’s Motivation Theory (1954). Maslow’s theory addresses both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation based on a hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s theory is relevant in education due to the desired goal of wanting all students to learn. Based on the framework of Maslow’s theory, both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation would exist for students whose needs were being met. In a classroom setting, these needs may consist of a student feeling safe and accepted in the learning environment along with the sense that their voice will be heard, they have choices, they understand what they gain from what is being required and they sense that the teacher is also invested in their learning. The conceptual framework for this study will be the self-efficacy model (Bandura, 1977). Bandura’s theory is relevant in education based on the belief that individuals have the ability to exhibit behaviors that yield successful performance. The self-efficacy model is based on the belief in one’s own abilities to understand and complete a task aside from intrinsic or extrinsic motivation (McTigue, 2011). Both the theoretical and conceptual frameworks explanation of the need for student motivation in a middle grades classroom presents a validation that a lack of student motivation in a middle grades classroom is an educational concern. The concern stems from a rise in increasing school accountability and school improvement. Studies indicate that there is an impact that high stakes assessments has had on student achievement. Research also indicates the results of the effect of high stakes assessments on student achievement are linked to student motivation and school accountability. Research Question Research question (quantitative) Is there a relationship between students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic success in middle grades classrooms? Null Hypothesis There is no relationship between students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic success in middle grades classrooms. Alternative Hypothesis There is a positive correlation between students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic success in the middle grades classrooms. Research Methodology and Design A correlational research design will be used for this study. Utilizing a quantitative research approach is beneficial for the purposes of this study. EDUC 6156 Walden University Cognitive Development Discussion Quantitative research tests and validates already existing theories about how and why a phenomenon occurs. In general, a correlational study is a quantitative method of research in which the researcher has two or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, and they are trying to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the two variables (a similarity between them, not a difference between their means). In theory, any two quantitative variables can be correlated (for the purposes of this study, students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic success) as long as the researcher has scores on these variables from the same participants. The researcher must take into consideration that it is not feasible to collect and analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other. Another factor in increasing the validity of the research is to have at least thirty participants. In a correlational research design, the researcher’s hypothesis will be that there is a positive correlation (for the purposes of the proposed study, students’ level of motivation and students’ level of academic success), or a negative correlation (for the purposes of this study, students’ level of motivation and students’ performance on high stakes assessments). In a correlational research design, a positive correlation would be an r = +1.0 and a negative correlation would be an r= -1.0, while no correlation would be r = 0. In a correlational research design, perfect correlations would almost never occur with the exception of correlations much less than + or – 1.0. The researcher must take into consideration that correlation cannot prove

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