Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines

Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines Prepare this assignment as a 1,500-1,750 word paper using from the the guidelines below. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines PICOT Question Revise the PICOT question you wrote in the Topic 1 assignment using the feedback you received from your instructor. The final PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study). Research Critiques In the Topic 2 and Topic 3 assignments, you completed a qualitative and quantitative research critique on two articles for each type of study (4 articles total). Use the feedback you received from your instructor on these assignments to finalize the critical analysis of each study by making appropriate revisions. The completed analysis should connect to your identified practice problem of interest that is the basis for your PICOT question. Refer to “Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines – Final DraftQuestions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative in the structure of a formal paper. Proposed Evidence-Based Practice Change Discuss the link between the PICOT question, the research articles, and the nursing practice problem you identified. Include relevant details and supporting explanation and use that information to propose evidence-based practice changes. General Requirements Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines literature_evaluation_week_1.docx scandelaria_quantitative_study_violence_and_nursing.doc nrs_433v_rs_research_critique_guidelines_9.18.docx Literature Evaluation Table Student Name: Scan Summary of Clinical Issue (200-250 words): The healthcare sector has been identified to have one of the violent working environment. The emergency departments are particularly the most affected and they are ranked as the areas where one is at the highest risk for such violence. The most common features in this department and the healthcare sector, in general, is violence and aggression. However, violence comprises of a wide array of behaviors from physical assault to non-physical forms of violence including sexual harassment and verbal abuse. The nurses have been identified as healthcare professionals at most risk of patient-related violence. They are often highly exposed to a disparate amount of violence with threatening behavior and a high level of verbal abuse being the most common. It has also been reported by various studies that physical violence has been experienced by about 90% of emergency department nurses in the course of their career with verbal abuse being experienced by almost all the nurses. The most common source of violence is the patients with other sources of violence being relatives and friends that accompany the patient when they are receiving care. Nurses, in most case, feel unsupported by their healthcare organizations with regards to workplace violence. It is, therefore, important to ensure that appropriate measures are put in place to create a safe working environment particularly for nurses working in the emergency department. PICOT Question: In the emergency department, will a establishing as Zero-tolerance code of conduct on violence, as compared to lack of a violence prevention program, minimize the high rate of violence towards nurses in 6 months? P- Patients, relatives and friends visiting the emergency department Intervention- Establishing as Zero-tolerance code of conduct on violence towards nurses Comparison- Lack of a violence prevention program © 2019. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Outcome- Minimizing the high rate of violence towards nurses Time- 6 months Criteria APAFormatted Article Citation with Permalink How Does the Article Relate to the PICOT Question? Quantitativ e, Qualitative (How do you know?) Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Shafran-Tikva, S., Zelker, R., Stern, Z., & Chinitz, D. (2017). Workplace violence in a tertiary care Israeli hospital a systematic analysis of the types of violence, the perpetrators and hospital departments. Israel Journal Of Health Policy Research, 6(1). doi: 10.1186/s13584017-0168-x https://ijhpr.biomedcentral.com/artic les/10.1186/s13584-017-0168-x Heshmati-Nabavi, F., HematiEsmaeili, M., Pouresmail, Z., Mazlom, S., & Reihani, H. (2018). Educational and managerial policy making to reduce workplace violence against nurses: An action research study. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 23(6), 478. doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.ijnmr_77_17 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar ticles/PMC6178581/ Niu, S., Kuo, S., Tsai, H., Kao, C., Traynor, V., & Chou, K. (2019). Prevalence of workplace violent episodes experienced by nurses in acute psychiatric settings. PLOS ONE, 14(1), e0211183. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.021118 3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar ticles/PMC6345477/ The article conducts a systematic analysis on the various forms of violence and the perpetrators of the violence. The study focused on the creation of a program that provides a safe environment for nurses in emergency departments. The study focused on the prevalence of workplace violence, and the strategies adopted to reduce violence towards nurses. The study used a quantitative research design where a quantitative questionnaire was administered to evaluate the incidence of violence. This was a quantitative study, where a participatory action research design was used. It was quantitative study, where a cross-sectional study design was implemented 2 Purpose Statement It was to examine the different forms of violence that nurses and physicians experience as well as the types of perpetrators. What are the different forms of violence that nurses and physicians experience as well as the different types of perpetrators? The results of the study indicated that nurses as twice much more exposed to violence as compared to physicians. The purpose of the study was to establish a workplace violence prevention program to reduce violence towards nurses. What is the level of patient and their family violence against nurses and the major sources of violence in the emergency departments? Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines The findings indicated that a workplace violence prevention program was able to significantly reduce the frequency of verbal violence. Setting (Where did the study take place?) Sample The study was conduct at a university-affiliated medical center in Jerusalem The study was conducted in a hospital in Iran. The study population consisted of 729 nurses and physicians Method Key Findings of the Study Quantitative research method Nurses were more exposed to violence in all the departments as compared to physicians. A positive association between rank and exposure to violence was established. Nurses in the emergency department participated in the participatory action research between October 2012 and May 2014 Quantitative research method A workplace violence prevention program was able to significantly reduce the frequency of verbal violence as well as other forms of violence. Research Question Outcome 3 The purpose of the study was to establish the prevalence of workplace violence, and the strategies adopted to reduce violence towards nurses. What is the prevalence of workplace violence? What are the strategies adopted to reduce violence towards nurses? The study results indicated high rates of both physical and psychological violence, with both being at over 50% Patient protocols, security measures and training were the main strategies adopted by workplaces to reduce prevalence of violence. The study was conducted in various healthcare settings in Northern Taiwan A total of 429 nurses participated in the study Quantitative research method High rates rates of both physical and psychological violence were reported. Patient protocols, security measures and training were the main strategies adopted by workplaces to reduce prevalence of violence. Recommen dations of the Researcher Criteria The researchers recommended policy interventions at all levels to promote violence prevention in healthcare facilities. The implementation of workplace violence prevention program particularly for nurses in the emergency department. Article 4 The study recommended training of healthcare professionals to handle violence, provision of a therapeutic environment and making the reporting process easy. Article 5 Article 6 APAFormatted Article Citation with Permalink Hassankhani, H., Parizad, N., GackiNajafi, F., Fallahi-Khoshknab, M., Ahmadi, F., Smith, J., Rahmani, A., & Dalvandi, A., & Rahgozar, M. (2017). Mohammadi, E. (2018). The Antecedents and consequences of consequences of violence workplace violence against nurses: A against nurses working in the qualitative study. Journal of Clinical emergency department: A Nursing, 27(1-2), e116-e128. doi: qualitative study. International 10.1111/jocn.13884 Emergency Nursing, 39, 20-25.Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111 doi: 10.1016/j.ienj.2017.07.007 /jocn.13884 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 28882749 Gillespie, G., Gates, D., & Berry, P. (2015). Stressful Incidents of Physical Violence against Emergency Nurses. The Online Journal of Issues In Nursing, 18(1). http://ojin.nursingwor ld.org How Does the Article Relate to the PICOT Question? The study relates to the PICOT question as it explores the experience and perceptions of nurses towards workplace violence perpetrated by patients The study relates to the PICOT question as it tries to establish some of physical acts of violence that are The study addresses on the effects on violence against nurses particularly in the emergency department and how this could consequently affect the quality of care. 4 Quantitative, Qualitative (How do you know?) Purpose Statement The study design was qualitative descriptive design where unstructured in-depth interviews were used to collect data. The study use a qualitative exploratory design, where semi-structured interviews were used. The study aimed at providing an understanding of the factors that leads to violence and the consequences of the violence on the nursing staff. The study aimed at providing more knowledge on the underlying consequences of workplace violence for emergency nurses. Research Question What are the experiences and perceptions of nurses towards workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and consequences the violence has on their performance? What are the consequences of workplace violence for emergency nurses? Outcome The study was able to establish inappropriate professional communication, unmet patient’s expectations and inefficient organizational management as the main predisposing factors of workplace violence. The study established that nurses predisposed to mental health issues, physical health issues, and issues of professional integrity as consequences of workplace violence. Setting (Where did the study take place?) Sample The study was conducted in nine hospitals The study was conducted in the emergency departments of five hospitals. 22 registered nurses participated in the study 16 nurses working in the in the emergency departments of five hospitals participated in the study 5 considered stressful by nurses. A qualitative descriptive research design was used for the study. The purpose of the study was described violent acts against emergency nurses that they consider stressful. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines What are the violent acts against emergency nurses do they consider stressful? The study was able to establish that physical violence was a major issue for emergency nurses during their routine nursing practice. The study was conducted countrywide A random sample of 3000 nurses who members of the Emergency Nurses Association. A Method Qualitative research method Key Findings of the Study The findings of the study indicated that inappropriate professional communication, unmet patient’s expectations and inefficient organizational management as the main predisposing factors of workplace violence. Recommendat ions of the Researcher Qualitative research method The study findings indicated that nurses predisposed to mental health issues, physical health issues, and issues of professional integrity as consequences of workplace violence and this affected their overall productivity. The study recommended the identification of The study recommended the provision the factors leading to workplace violence and of support for the nurses and ensure use them to develop appropriate interventions they have a safe working environment to reduce the violence. as this would improve their overall The study also recommended the development well-being and the quality of care of native instruments that can be used to predict provided. and monitor violence. 6 response rate of 5.9% was recorded from the random sample which was about 177 study participants. Qualitative research method The study findings indicated that physical violence was a major issue for emergency nurses during their routine nursing practice. The recommendations from the study included the development of quick exists for nurses away from violence patients, as well as the developing and consistently enforcing policy interventions that are aimed at preventing violence against nurses at the workplace. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines Running head: VIOLENCE AND NURSING 1 Critique of Quantitative Studies: Violence and Nursing Scan Grand Canyon University Violence and Nursing 2 Critique of Quantitative Studies: Violence and Nursing When it comes to the immediate needs of healthcare workers, a workplace that is free of violence is bound to be the last item on an individual’s mind. After all, it is not generally expected that healthcare workers, including nurses, to be facing constant violence. However, though healthcare settings are perceived as relatively safe spaces, violence is a concerningly predominant within these spaces. To effectively tackle this problem, it is imperative to make the issue overt and explicit. It is also important to understand why this problem manifests, who it affects, and what are the effects that it can have on the individual. In this paper, two quantitative studies will be evaluated for the insight that they can provide regarding these questions. Specifically, “Workplace Violence in a Tertiary Care Israeli Hospital – A Systematic Analysis of The Types of Violence, The Perpetrators and Hospital Departments” and “Prevalence Of Workplace Violent Episodes Experienced by Nurses in Acute Psychiatric Settings”, two peerreviewed articles that tackle this issue, carried out by different and independent teams, some of the nuances of this matter are explored. These studies show that violence is a recurring issue in healthcare setting, that targets nurses, and that the systems in place to mitigate its prevalence are not always functional. As such, it is imperative to ensure that healthcare facilities have the proper processes in place to fight against this problem. Background of Studies The two studies that were chosen for this analysis respond to the same need – the prevalence of violence within healthcare facilities, targeted particularly at healthcare workers, especially nurses. Offering a general exploration of this paradigm, the literature review that precedes the study by (Shafran-Tikva, et al.), for instance, it is made clear that the problem of Violence and Nursing 3 violence directed at healthcare workers has been so pervasive to warrant studies in overt 60 countries. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines Furthermore, they recognize that the violence can change depending on the setting, with some individuals being at higher risk than others. The work of (Niu, et al), which is more directly targeted at the violence affects nurses, offers a bit more depth to this particular manifestation of violence. In their literature review, as well, they include information that is more specifically tailored towards nurses, as their own distinct category. In their exploration of this background, they include three vital components for their paper: the source of the violence that nurses face (from colleagues and patients), the possible reasons for this violence (the direct and constant interactions that nurses have with their patients), and the different factors that can lead to their occurrence. One of the factors outlined is environment, as the researchers chose to focus on one particular type of medical facility – psychiatric hospitals. The authors also make it evident that the reason was also motivated by the lack of existent research into that kind of specialized facility. Methods Quantitative Study The specifics in the methodologies of the two texts will be discussed further. In (Niu, et al.)’s article, “a cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence, the reaction of victims, and workplace strategies of acute psychiatric settings in Northern Taiwan” (2019). The study features a sample size of 430 full-time registered nurses who work full-time in one of the acute psychiatric facilities available in the region. The selected participants would take a standardize questionnaire, the Workplace Violence Survey Questionnaire, with the aid of an expert would ensure that the information reach the researchers Violence and Nursing 4 in the appropriate ethical conditions. The results of the questionnaire would be then analyzed by the team of researchers. In (Shafran-Tikva, et al.) a questionnaire is also utilized for the collection of data. Their sample did not just include nurses, but physicians, as well; the healthcare professionals selected were “from the departments of internal medicine, surgery, oncology, intensive care, ambulatory care and clinics, and the department of emergency medicine” (2017). Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines The questionnaire was anonymous. Results of Studies Quantitative Results The two studies showed that violence against healthcare practitioners is a problem within their selected areas. Starting with (Shafran-Tikva, et al.), which explores more broadly the subject of violence in healthcare by its shared focus on nurses and physicians, the results of the study showed that, as in other locations, the hospital selected demonstrated to have a problem with violence. Out of all their respondents, at least 58% claimed to have experienced some form of violence within the last six months (2017). The study also showed, though, that the rates of violence that one can experience as a healthcare practitioner might depend on various different variables. For instance, the researchers found that the higher in rank a physician was, the less likely it was for them to encounter violence in the workplace. Interns, on the other hand, were much more likely to witness this violence. Likewise, the rates of violence changed depending on the area of work. In the oncology department, for example, healthcare workers were less likely to be at the receiving end of violence, while violence became more common in the Emergency Room. The aggressor, though, would remain the same even when accounting for these changes – in cases of workplace violence, the healthcare workers were more likely to be at the receiving Violence and Nursing 5 end of it from a patient’s family member, than from the patient themselves. Finally, the researchers also noticed that there was a difference in the rates of violence faced by doctors and nurses, with nurses being more likely to be victims of violence. This part, specifically, serves t add further foundation to the study by (Niu, et al.) which focuses on the violence faced by nurses, partly because of the existence of this trend. Discussion: Research Critiques and PICOT Guidelines (Niu, et al., 2019)’s study, which focused on the violence that is faced by nurses at psychiatric facilities, the researchers found that 88.3% of all nurses had experienced some form of violence, whether psychological or physical, while at work. The study also showed that most of the attackers “were patients (97.4%), followed by patient’s family members”. One particularly shocking revelation showed that, despite the violence being reported, the perpetrators would not receive mitigating consequences. On the contrary, the perpetrators would either be given a light warning, or no action would be taken at all. As a result, many nurses choose not to report the incidents, as they believe that doing so would be futile. Despite this poor record with the handling of violence in the workplace setting, the facilities did have in place the different measures that are meant to minimize its occurrence, like encouragement to report and proper training. Outcomes Comparison The results of these two studies are in-line with my previous expectations and the consensus that is found on the literature. Violence is prevalent enough in healthcare facilities for majorities to admit to having faced it at some point in their careers. Likewise, the violence that nurses receive is heighted across different departments because of their relationship to the patient, which is more frontal than that of the physician. The studies do differ on the perpetrator Violence and Nursing 6 of the violence, though. With (Niu, et al., 2019) crediting patients as being more likely to be aggressors, while (Shafran-Tikva, et al., 2016) claims that it is their relatives who are more likely to offend. Though, this could be credited to the difference in the facilities and the patients. Shafran-Tikva, et al.’s study does not include the psychiatric department, either. One point of convergence that the tw … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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