Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers

Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Select a topic for your Topic 3 Executive Summary assignment. Post your idea and basic thoughts about the topic using the assignment details from Topic 3. You should provide thoughts to your peers about their topics and ideas that may assist them in completing their projects. topic : “Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers: The Personal and Professional Factors that Affect Their Performance,” by Handan and Uiku, from Journal of Psychiatric Nursing (2018). the_personal_and_professional_fact Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING DOI: 10.14744/phd.2017.08870 J Psychiatric Nurs 2018;9(2):119-128 Original Article Personality characteristics of nurse managers: The personal and professional factors that affect their performance Handan Alan, Ulku Baykal Department of Nursing Administration, ?stanbul University Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, ?stanbul, Turkey Abstract Objectives: Managers’ personalities indicate how they think, perceive reality, and relate to others; these qualities affect their decision making and problem-solving methods. Although there are many studies of leadership and managerial characteristics in the nursing profession, there is a lack of adequate data about personality characteristics. This descriptive study aims to determine the personal characteristics of nurse managers and the personal and professional factors that affect them. Methods: The study population consisted of nurses working in administrative positions at hospitals affiliated with the public hospitals union, in research, and in practice hospitals affiliated with universities and private hospitals in cities in the Marmara Region. The final study sample consisted of nurse managers working in the hospitals that gave permission to conduct the study (excluding the private branch hospitals). The data were collected after obtaining the approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (Approval date: 1.7.2015, Decision No: 2015-01) and written official permission from the administrations of the hospitals included in the study. The data were collected using the Five Factor Personality Inventory. The data analysis was carried out using means and standard deviations (SD) as descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance for inter-group comparisons, and the independent samples t-test for paired group comparisons. A significance threshold of p<0.05 was used to evaluate the findings. Results: The study included 900 nurse managers; they obtained the highest mean score on the conscientiousness dimension (Mean±SD=4.22±0.35). This dimension was followed by their mean scores on the agreeableness (Mean±SD=4.06±0.40), intelligence (Mean±SD=4.05±0.37), extroversion (Mean±SD=3.50±0.43), and emotional instability (Mean±SD=2.07±0.53) dimensions. Statistically significant differences were found between the independent variables of age, gender, marital status, education level, work institution, professional experience, institutional experience, managerial experience, administrative position, work unit, and managerial education when compared using the fivefactor personality inventory (p<0.05). Conclusion: The nurse managers described themselves as being highly conscientious. Statistically significant differences were found between the five-factor personality inventory mean scores and personal and professional characteristics. Keywords: Nurse manager; personal characteristics; personality; professional characteristics. Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers. M anagerial behavior and its effects on an organization are among the primary subjects in management research. Managing people and guiding them toward a certain goal entails understanding their personality and behavioral characteristics. This process requires managers to know themselves better and to be aware of their own personality characteristics.[1] The ability to understand and to know both one’s own self and others constitutes the concept of personality, which in turn refers to all structural and dynamic characteristics seen in an Address for correspondence: Handan Alan, ?.Ü. Florence Nightingale Hem?irelik Fakültesi, 34381 ?i?li, ?stanbul, Turkey Phone: +90 212 440 00 00 E-mail: [email protected] ORCID: 0000-0001-7414-2288 Submitted Date: March 22, 2017 Accepted Date: November 27, 2017 Available Online Date: April 20, 2018 Copyright 2018 by Journal of Psychiatric Nursing – Available online at www.phdergi.org © 120 individual’s reactions to situations they encounter.[2] In short, time-related emotional and behavioral changes, personal differences shaped by other people’s behaviors, and behaving differently in certain situations arise from personality characteristics.[3,4] In the scholarly literature, there are different views on the dimensions that constitute personality. Nevertheless, the individual’s genetic and physical structure, cultural factors, group membership, family factors, role behavior, and social status are among the common factors of personality.[5,6] Many theories attempt to explain the development of personality—the main reason causing personal differences—in terms of biological factors and individual experiences. These theories describe initiatives that motivate human behavior. They focus on personality factors and characteristics, and thereby classify people in terms of their unique and consistent similarities and differences.[8] Because there are many personality characteristics, everyone has a unique personality structure, and these characteristics influence both their private and professional lives. Persons who are successful both in their private and professional lives have healthy and balanced personalities. Being professionally knowledgeable is not sufficient for good work performance: manners, attitude, and behavior are also deemed important because realizing organizational aims and goals is interrelated with managers’ personality structure and characteristics.[6] Fred Luthans observed effective managers for four years, and ultimately classified managerial activities in four categories: communication, traditional management, networking, and human resource management.[7] Based on that analysis, managers were influenced by several factors and adopted a unique behavior while carrying out those activities. Luthans emphasized that this unique behavior pattern relied on the manager’s personality characteristics, which differentiated him/her from others.[7] Distinct managerial styles and behaviors result in different organizational outputs in an institution where resources, opportunities, and conditions are the same.[9] Personality of the manager, and the way s/he thinks, perceives reality, and relates to others influence decision-making and problem-solving methods.Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers. [10] These responses also have a very important effect on employees’ performance, success, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.[11,12] At the same time, managers’ personality characteristics support organizational outputs, such as work performance, creativity, career development, and leadership effectiveness, which play an important role in organizational success.[13,14] For this reason, identifying managers’ personality characteristics and determining which of these characteristics are displayed are significant factors in an organization’s success. Organizations that use human power in the most efficient and productive way are more successful; the managers and the managed are the two sides of this success: the interaction between these two groups is a psychological process. Those who can assess and use the personality factor well are closer to success. The unique personality characteristics; therefore, they are influenced by different instincts when carrying out different activities, and his difference stems Psikiyatri Hem?ireli?i Dergisi – Journal of Psychiatric Nursing from personality characteristics. In other words, personality type influences the individual’s perception and interpretation of the environment, which results in changes in performance direction and level in diverse activities.[15] In hospitals that operate to achieve specific goals and tasks, manager nurses are required to carry out many functions, such as investigating problems, collecting data, setting goals and targets, planning business, using all resources effectively and efficiently, training and motivating employees, communication, technology management, change and conflict management, measuring results, analysis, and assessment.[16] To realize all these, managers need to have personality characteristics that include being organized, having good communication skills, decision-making, risk-taking, investigating, and being flexible and open to change.[17] Looking at the relevant literature, although personality characteristics have been analyzed for different professional groups, there are no studies that use a sample of manager nurses. Instead, nurses’ leadership and managerial characteristics are examined. This descriptive study was carried out to determine manager nurses’ personality characteristics, and personal and professional variables that affect them through the “Five-Factor Personality Inventory”. Materials and Method Research Population and Sample The research population consisted of manager nurses (care managers, head-nurses, head-nurse assistants, chief nurses, and supervisor nurses) working at hospitals affiliated with the union of state hospitals, university hospitals, and private hospitals in Istanbul, Tekirda?, Edirne, Bursa, Çanakkale, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Bal?kesir, Bilecik, K?rklareli, and Yalova in the Marmara Region. The possible research sample constituted of manager nurses working at hospitals that gave us permission to carry out this study (n=1820). Specialized hospitals, which provide services only in one field (such as oral/dental health, pediatrics, oncology, and psychiatric hospitals) were excluded from the research sample. Voluntary participation was the key criterion for participating in this study, and we aimed to reach all manager nurses (n=900; 49.5%).Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Data Collection Tools An 11-question personal information form and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (5FPI) were used to determine manager nurses’ personal and professional characteristics. The Personal Information Form was developed by the researcher based on the scholarly literature.[2,8–11,15] It contains multiple-choice questions on participants’ age, gender, marital status, education level, institutional affiliation, work experience, institutional experience, work unit, managerial experience, and the status of receiving training on management. The 5FPI was used to measure participants’ personality characteristics. Somer, Tatar and Korkmaz (2004)[18] developed the 5FPI using Goldberg’s (1992)[19] International Personality Item 121 Handan Alan, The personal characteristics of nurse / dx.doi.org/10.14744/phd.2017.08870 Pool. That inventory consists of 220 items on a five-points Likert scale, which includes short self-evaluation statements on behavioral, emotional, and intellectual characteristics. Each participant was asked to select one of the following choices according to how she perceives herself: Very Accurate (VA), Moderately Accurate (MA), Neither Accurate nor Inaccurate (?), Moderately Inaccurate (MI), Very Inaccurate (VI). In the 5FPI, 17 specific sub-dimensions are categorized under five main factors to enable a clearer conceptualization of broad factors. [20] These are listed as follows: energetic, active, and assertive under the extraversion factor; tolerance, tranquility, reconciliation, and gentleness under the factor of agreeableness; commitment to rules, responsibility/determination, and seeking excitement under the factor of self-control/conscientiousness; emotional instability, tendency for anxiety, and lack of self-confidence under the factor of neuroticism; analytical thinking, sensitivity, and open for change under the factor of openness to experience. In addition to these sub-dimensions, The Subscale and Control Items of Social Desirability were included in the test. The items of the Social Desirability Sub-Scale and its control items do not have any effect on the personality scale scores. Considering the internal consistency and reliability values of the five main factors, Cronbach’s Alpha values are high: between 0.88 and 0.96. Internal consistency of the sub-scales varies between 0.76 and 0.93. In this study, Cronbach’s Alpha values of the five factors were at a high level: 0.83 to 0.91. Data Collection Data were collected after obtaining the approval of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University (Approval date: 1.7.2015, Decision No: 2015-01) and the written official permissions of the hospitals’ administration. At the first stage, top-level manager nurses were contacted and informed about the study over the phone and were asked to provide their e-mail addresses. The Internet link address (url) of the scale was sent to top manager nurses via e-mail, and they were asked to forward the e-mail to other middle and low-level manager nurses via the shared communication network of the hospital. The scales completed by manager nurses were automatically uploaded to the system. However, this method could not ensure sufficient response. Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers. Therefore, at the second stage, the scales were re-sent to the manager nurses in the low-return institutions via mail. At the third stage, the researcher visited the institutions that did not respond to the questionnaires sent via mail, in person. The researcher handed in the scale, waited for the nurses to fill them out, and re-collected them. Data Analysis In this study, quantitative data was analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) 21 package program. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for descriptive statistical methods, one-way variance analysis for inter-group comparisons, and the t-test in independent samples for paired group comparisons were employed. Results were assessed at the p<0.05 significance level. Results Personality characteristics of the research sample—manager nurses working at public, private and university hospitals in the Marmara Region—are presented in Table 1. Of the 900 participant nurses, 54.9% were in the 36–45 age group, 92.7% were female, 80.1% were married, and 47.2% had undergraduate degrees (Table 1). Concerning manager nurses’ professional positions, 62.0% worked in state hospitals, 78.0% were low-level manager nurses, and 45.7% worked in a general services unit. Among manager nurses, 47.3% had 11–20 years of professional experience, 56.4% had been working in the same institution for 1 to 10 years, and 84.3% had 10 years and less experience in management. However, only 31.6% had participated in training/seminars on management (Table 2). Table 3 displays manager nurses’ score distribution in the 5FPI factor and sub-factors. The highest mean score was 4.22±0.35 in the factor of self-control/conscientiousness. There were differences between manager nurses’ mean scores in the 5FPI factors and their personal and professional characteristics (Table 4 and 5). There were also differences between manager nurses’mean scores in the 5FPI factors and their gender, age, marital status, education level, affiliated institution, professional experience, institutional experience, level of management, work unit, managerial experience, and training in management. The Bonferroni method, a one-way variance analysis post hoc test, was used to ascertain which of the manager nurses’ characteristics led to the score difference among the five factors. A difference was detected between the factor of extraversion and manager nurses’ gender and educational level. Among Table 1. The distribution of manager nurses’ personal characteristics (n=900) Variables Age groups 25–35 36–45 Marital status Married Single Gender Female Male Education Medical vocational high school Two-year degree Undergraduate Postgraduate n % 309 494 34.3 54.9 721 179 80.1 19.9 834 66 92.7 7.3 123 180 425 172 13.7 20.0 47.2 19.1 122 Psikiyatri Hem?ireli?i Dergisi – Journal of Psychiatric Nursing manager nurses’ professional characteristics, there was a difference between their affiliated institution, professional experience, work unit, managerial experience, and the status of receiving training on management (p<0.05). Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Discussion: Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers. These differences arose among female manager nurses, who had postgraduate degrees, worked at private hospitals, had 21 and more years’ professional experience and 11 and more years’ managerial experience, and reported having been trained in management (Table 4, Table 5). Statistically significant differences were identified between the agreeableness/compatibility factor and manager nurses’ age, gender, marital status, professional and institutional exTable 2. Distribution of manager nurses’ professional characteristics (n=900) Variables Affiliated institution State hospital University hospital Private Hospital Professional experience 1–5 years’ experience 6–10 years 11–15 years 16–20 years 21–25 years ?26 Institutional experience 1–5 years 6–10 years 11–15 years 16–20 years 21–25 years ?26 Institutional duty Top level manager Middle level manager Low level manager Work unit General services Critical care units Management Managerial experience 1–5 years 6–10 years 11–15 years 16–20 years 21–25 years ?26 Management training Yes No n % 557 190 153 62.0 21.0 17.0 62 131 199 226 175 107 6.9 14.6 22.1 25.1 19.4 11.9 256 252 159 124 74 35 28.4 28.0 17.7 13.8 8.2 3.9 79 119 702 8.8 13.2 78.0 411 291 198 45.7 32.3 22.0 593 166 88 30 15 8 65.9 18.4 9.8 3.3 1.7 0.9 284 616 31.6 68.4 perience, and their work units (p<0.05). The difference among age groups arose from the age group 46 years old and older (Table 4). Like the mean scores of the extraversion factor, in agreeableness the difference between the durations of professional and institutional experience arose from manager nurses who had been managers for 21 years and more: mean scores increased together with the duration of experience (Table 5). Likewise, female and married manager nurses had higher scores in the agreeableness factor (Table 4). A statistically significant difference was found between manager nurses’ age groups and the factor of self-control/conscientiousness. The source of this difference was the age group of 46 years old and older (Table 4). The self-control/conscientiousness factor was higher for manager nurses who were 46 years old and older, had 21 years and more professional and institutional experience, and 11 years and more managerial experience (Table 5). In addition, the mean self-control score was higher in female and married nurses who also had postgraduate degrees (Table 4). This study found that there was a difference between manager nurses’ professional experiences and the factor of neuroticism, which arose from the group of nurses who had 21 years and above professional experience. The mean neuroticism score was higher in low-level manager nurses with 21 years and higher professional experience (Table 5). Table 3. Distribution of Mean Factor Scores of the 5FPI and its Sub-dimensions (n=900) 5FPI Factors and Sub-dimensions Mean±SD Extraversion (Total mean score) Energetic Active Assertive Agreeableness/Compatibility (Total mean score) Tolerance Tranquility Reconciliation Gentleness Self-control/Conscientousness (Total mean score) Regularity Commitment to rules Responsibility/determination Seeking excitement Neuroticism (Total mean score) Emotional instability Tendency for anxiety Lack of self-confidence Openness to experience (Total mean score) Analytic thinking Sensitivity Openness to change 3.50±0.43 3.36±0.57 4.14±0.54 3.14±0.63 4.06±0.40 4.28±0.43 3.86±0.56 3.84±0.60 4.22±0.42 4.22±0.35 4.46±0.42 4.26±0.41 4.50±0.40 2.42±0.66 2.07±0.53 2.10±0.61 2.26±0.65 1.86±0.49 4.05±0.37 4.19±0.46 4.07±0.42 3.89±0.48 5FPI: Five-Factor Personality Inventory; SD: Standard deviation. 123 Handan Alan, The personal characteristics of nurse / dx.doi.org/10.14744/phd.2017.08870 Table 4. Comparison of manager nurses’ personal characteristics and their Mean Factor Scores in the 5FPI (n=900) Extraversion Age* 25–35 (n=309) 36–45 (n= …Personality Characteristics of Nurse Managers Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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