Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening

Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening Read the instructor feedback at the top of my revised prospectus word document Review certain points in my advanced prospects. Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening Edit the points according to the instructor feedback found at the margine of the word document last_revised_prospectus.docx dissertation_prospectus_sample__1_.pdf understanding_conceptual_theoretical_framework.pdf prospectus_guide.pdf thank you for your nice paper and interesting topic. However, there are some issues which need to be addressed prior to proceed to next steps. Please see below some comments that can help you to have a stronger Prospectus, Proposal and thus a better final study. Also, these suggestions can help you pass next review phases, such as URR and IRB review. The most significant issues are; you need to more justify the literature gap you want to fill with this study; please more demonstrate the original contribution and potential social change implications of your study; please improve your RQs and be more specific on the variables you will use; please provide more information on the quantitative design and population under study; please suggest a specific and relatively easily accessible secondary dataset that can help you address your RQs; please improve your APA reference style. Please work with your chair/committee on these issues and let me know if you have any questions. Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening I am looking forward to your revised Prospectus! Regards, Dr Margaritis (PD Designee) Cultural Barriers and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Immigrants in Ontario, Canada Cultural Barriers and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Immigrants in Ontario, Canada Problem Statement Cervical cancer (CC) is a top-burden international health issue with an approximated incidence of 528,000 and mortality of 266,000 globally in 2012 (Johnson, Armstrong, Joyce, Teitelman, & Buttenheim, 2018). According to Ferdous et al. (2018), it is the third most frequent yet preventable carcinoma among Canadian women. Developed countries like Canada have achieved a significant decrease in the burden of the disease following Pap smear programs (Ferdous et al., 2018). Appropriate screening in Canada has significantly reduced the number of new cases and deaths from CC in recent decades (Lofters, Vahabi, Fardad, & Raza, 2017). While screening is vital for females from adolescent age, the likelihood of Muslim immigrant women to undergo testing in Ontario is minimal (Lofters et al. 2017), thereby causing them higher rates of the disease. A survey done by the “National Household Survey” in 2011 reported that over 600, 000 out of 1,000, 000 cases of CC in Ontario were Muslim women (Lofters et al., 2017). According to Lofters et al., 60 percent of the 600,000 women are foreign-born (2017). Another investigation by the “Institute for Clinical Evaluate Sciences” (ICES) between 2012 and 2015 found that 47 percent of the 761, 019 Muslim women in Ontario were overdue in their Pap test. Bacal et al. (2019) presume that immigration status links to a notable higher chance of underscreening, irrespective of time in Canada. According to Padela, Peek, Johnson-Agbakwu, Hosseinian, and Curlin (2014), immigration status, racial and ethnic affiliation influence the patterns of pap testing.Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening Internationally, Muslims represent a notable portion of the community and remains the fastest-growing religion (Attum, Waheed, & Shamoon, 2019). The Muslim faith circumscribes a number of ethnicities and various outlooks relating to healthcare and illness (Attum et al., 2019). While this may influence their health practices, decision-making, and health-seeking behavior, it also poses a challenge to non-Muslim healthcare givers (Attum et al., 2019). According to Lofters et al. (2017), the reason why many immigrant Muslim women refuse to take cancer screening tests is related to religious outlooks. Therefore, providing a high standard of care to persons of the Muslim faith demands a comprehension of the variations in spiritual and cultural values. The essential variations related to culture that could influence CC screening include touch restriction and modesty (Attum et al., 2019). In a study carried out by Lofters et al. (date?)to explore the acceptability of CC screening among Muslim immigrants, close to 50 percent of the participants showed that screening is an intrusion on privacy. Attum et al. presume that health caregivers of opposite gender interacting with Muslim women should adhere to certain directions whenever possible, including avoiding physical and eye contact (2019). According to Attum et al. (2019), male physicians may need to communicate through the husband when attending to a Muslim woman. With the number of male physicians outnumbering that of female physicians, these cultural issues can impede CC screening and exam involves the intrusion of privacy. Recognizing the reciprocated interaction between culture and religion is imperative because culture determines religion, and religion influences culture (Beyers, 2017). According to Attum et al. (2019), Muslims view health as a state of social, spiritual, psychological, and physical well-being and considers it as the greatest blessing from God to humankind. Ailing Muslims receive disease with patience, meditation, and prayers and those who are not active in faith may seek religious intercession when facing significant problems (Attum et al., 2019). Ailing persons believe disease, pain, suffering, and demise is a test from God and discerns disease as a trial by which an individual’s sins are cleansed (Attum et al., 2019). Negative religious coping, for instance, observing health issues as a punishment from God linked to lower odds of getting a Pap test among Muslim women (Padela et al., 2014). These beliefs regarding health and illness, therefore, may influence healthcare decisions negatively, thereby affecting the uptake of CC screening practices. Purpose of the Study CC screening helps to detect cancerous growth at early and manageable stages. Such detection helps to have prompt intervention procedures and hence, preventing severity, morbidity, and mortality and promoting healing. Culture influences health decisions and causes insufficient coverage of CC screening among immigrant Muslim women. Hence, it leads to late detection and diagnosis of cancer. The lateness leads to painful outcomes and deaths. This research aims at exploring the relationship between cultural barriers and CC screening among immigrant Muslim women in Ontario. Understanding the cultural issues that impede CC screening in this population can help establish culturally competent approaches to improve their healthcare decision and improve CC screening coverage. This research is unique because it focuses on an area that has not been exploited in explanation of why there is a low record of CC screening among immigrant Muslim women (Lofters et al., 2017). Significance The findings of this study can help in increasing the rates of CC screening among immigrant Muslim women living in Ontario. The result of this study can provide comprehensive insight into the impact of culture on CC screening among immigrant Muslim women. These results can also give an insight into the impact of healthcare provider’s gender on CC screening among immigrant Muslim women. This will enable healthcare givers to develop cultural competent approaches to CC screening among immigrant Muslim women. Healthcare providers will find better ways of delivering cancer-screening services to immigrant Muslim women in a way that encourages immigrant women to take screening tests. To the policymakers, the results of this research can help improve cultural competence, flexibility, and adaptability skills among healthcare service practitioners. Policymakers can also make decisions on how to modify or develop new policies that will facilitate unbiased healthcare delivery, the continuous learning process in healthcare services, and the desire for delivering quality healthcare services. Healthcare faces many issues that force constant changes while providing high-quality services to patients. Therefore, determining how their practices and assumptions impede CC screening will help understand the importance of healthcare service practitioners to adapt or acquire the critical skills that will ensure the continuous delivery of healthcare services to all patients. The immigrant Muslim women will also benefit by receiving quality CC screenings that do not raise cultural concerns and development of positive attitudes towards acquiring other healthcare services. It will even encourage other immigrant Muslim women to obtain CC screening. Background Selected articles relating to cultural barriers to CC testing among immigrant Muslim women in Canada are as follows. Keywords are inclusive of screening, cervical cancer, behavioral intention, and subjective norms from the used academic sources. Ferdous et al. (2018) provided information regarding the lack of acceptable female providers, which has been shown as a key barrier to CC screening among immigrant Muslim women. Lofters et al. (2017) provided information regarding the influence of religion on CC screening, which has been found to impede CC screening among females from Muslim-majority nations Leinonen et al. (2017) provided information regarding having a male general care provider as one of the factors linked to CC screening non-adherence. Vahabi and Lofters, (2016) provided information concerning the importance of cultural and religious outlooks in modeling the daily healthcare encounter of Muslim females and their pap-testing resolutions, which has been found to influence CC screening. Vahabi and Lofters (2018) provided information regarding self-sampling, which has been shown to address the barrier of having a male provider. Attum, Waheed, and Shamoon (2019) provided information regarding cultural competence, which has been shown as a key predictor of medical care among Muslim women. Framework This study will be based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985). This framework suggests that the health behavior of individuals is subject to their intentions about a particular behavior. Regarding this framework, the behavioral intention of individuals is determined by their subjective norms and attitude on the behavior. Since this theory addresses the behavior of a person a resultant effect of his attitude and subjective norms, it is an effective tool in evaluating the behavior of the Muslim women in Ontario towards the CC screening coverage and hence, guiding in solving the research problem of the current study. It will be effective in finding the cultural factors that impact the CC screening coverage among Muslim women in Ontario because their subjective norms are part of their cultural beliefs and affiliations. It will also facilitate the finding of responses to the research questions guiding this research by evaluating the norms that informed the behavior of the women towards the health behavior of testing. The concept of subjective norms will help in the understanding of the cultural factors associated with CC screening. The concept of one’s attitude will assist in the understanding of how culture affects the personal behavior of Muslim women in Ontario. Discussion: Immigrants in Ontario Cultural Barriers & Cervical Cancer Screening Research Question s RQ1 – How does the cultural practices affect the success of CC testing among Muslim immigrant women in Ontario, Canada? Null Hypothesis There is no statistically significant effect caused by the culture on CC testing of Muslim immigrant women in Ontario. Alternative Hypothesis There is a statistically significant effect caused by the culture on CC testing of Muslim immigrant women in Ontario. RQ2 –How does the cultural practices among the Muslim immigrant women in Ontario influence their attitude towards CC screening? Null Hypothesis There is no statistically significant influence caused by the culture of Muslim immigrant women in Ontario on their attitude towards CC testing. Alternative Hypothesis There is a statistically significant influence caused by the culture of Muslim immigrant women in Ontario on their attitude towards CC testing. Nature of Study The nature of this research will be a quantitative study. In heed of evaluating the relationship between the act of CC testing and the practice of cultural values among the women, the materials that shall be evaluated will be selected across time. The study will examine the nature of the sources’ objectives before settling on using them for the research. It will also be able to identify the impact of cultural values on the women intention to do CC testing. Secondary Data Types and Sources of Information The secondary data for this study be accessed from such sources as employee surveys, historical documents from province records, de-identified medical records, statistics from a federal database, and official publications of health departments and organizations. Most of such sources can be found in several online databases and sites. One of the reliable online resource centers is the Center for Research Quality website. The references will be filtered following their analysis of the relationship between cultural norms and people’s behavior towards health care interventions. Limitations and Challenges Ethical challenges- since the case involves religious aspects in healthcare, there is a need to be very sensitive in cases of ethical issues that can make the study invalid or participant to provide critical information. The data will comprise self-reported information that can be prone to social desirability bias. The quantitative data may not be suitable in describing any social phenomena linked to Pap testing. Reference Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Action control (pp. 11-39). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Attum, B., Waheed, A., & Shamoon, Z. (2019). Cultural competence in the care of Muslim patients and their families. Bacal, V., Blinder, H., Momoli, F., Wu, K. Y., & McFaul, S. (2019). Is Immigrant Status Associated With Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Canada? Results From a Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada , 41 (6), 824-831. Beyers, J. (2017). Religion and culture: Revisiting a close relative. HTS Theological Studies , 73 (1), 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i1.3864 Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development . Harvard university press. Ferdous, M., Lee, S., Goopy, S., Yang, H., Rumana, N., Abedin, T., & Turin, T. C. (2018). Barriers to cervical cancer screening faced by immigrant women in Canada: a systematic scoping review. BMC women’s health , 18 (1), 165. doi:10.1186/s12905-018-0654-5 Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES). (2017). Researchers examine whether religion influences the rates of cervical cancer screening . Retrieved from https://www.ices.on.ca/Newsroom/News-Releases/2017/Researchers-examine-whether-religion-influences-rates-of-cervical-cancer-screening Johnson, L. G., Armstrong, A., Joyce, C. M., Teitelman, A. M., & Buttenheim, A. M. (2018). Implementation strategies to improve cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Implementation Science , 13 (1), 28. Leinonen, M. K., Campbell, S., Ursin, G., Tropé, A., & Nygård, M. (2017). Barriers to cervical cancer screening faced by immigrants: a registry-based study of 1.4 million women in Norway. The European Journal of Public Health , 27(5), 873-879. Lofters, A. K., Vahabi, M., Fardad, M., & Raza, A. (2017). Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women. Cancer management and research , 9 , 323. Lofters, A. K., Vahabi, M., Kim, E., Ellison, L., Graves, E., & Glazier, R. H. (2017). Cervical Cancer Screening among Women from Muslim-Majority Countries in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers , 26(10), 1493-1499. Nyambe, A., Van Hal, G., & Kampen, J. K. (2016). Screening and vaccination as determined by the Social Ecological Model and the Theory of Triadic Influence: a systematic review. BMC public health , 16 (1), 1166. Padela, A. I., Peek, M., Johnson-Agbakwu, C. E., Hosseinian, Z., & Curlin, F. (2014). Associations between religion-related factors and cervical cancer screening among Muslims in greater Chicago. Journal of lower genital tract disease , 18 (4), 326. doi:10.1097/LGT.0000000000000026 Vahabi, M., & Lofters, A. (2016). Muslim immigrant women’s views on cervical cancer screening and HPV self-sampling in Ontario, Canada. BMC Public Health , 16(1), 868. Vahabi, M., & Lofters, A. (2018). HPV self-sampling: A promising approach to reduce cervical cancer screening disparities in Canada. Current Oncology , 25 (1), 13. https://doi.org/10.3747/co.25.3845 Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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