Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project

Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project ….I have reached the sixth draft currently for that I want someone to continue working on it till the final draft …..”Project proposal: Emergency Preparedness for COVID 19 In Saudi Arabia” this is the capstone project….I have uploaded the other documents. attachment_1 attachment_2 Emergency Preparedness for COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia Table of Contents List of Abbreviations. 3 Statement of purpose. 4 Need for the project 6 Literature Review.. 11 Research Questions and Hypotheses. 15 Research questions. 15 Hypotheses. 15 Methodology. 16 Possible Challenges. 17 Suggested Solutions for the Challenges. 17 References. 19 APPENDICES. 19 List of AbbreviationsPRISMA………Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-AnalysesLEOSS………. Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients ISARIC………… International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection ConsortiumWHO…………World Health Organization.IRB………………Institution Review BoardFDA…………..Food and Drug Administration Statement of purposeThe report from the World Health Organization has indicated that the outbreak (There were two outbreaks – one for SARS, one for COVID 19.)of SARS-CoV-2 and the novel coronavirus has raised an alarm in medical science. COVID-19 as of today 2020/09/29 has claimed 1,000,040 lives worldwide and 4,739 lives in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted many economical activities as they have been suspended in many countries. The suspension of these activities was a measure of controlling the pandemic by avoiding gatherings and crowds as guided by the World Health Organization. Learning institutions, business places such as bars, restaurants, recreational activities, and sporting activities were suspended in efforts to manage the pandemic. According to the World Health Organization, several lifesaving responses are in trial. Professionals in medicine are in a laboratory day and night to find new interventions and modes of treatment. According to McKeever, (2020), the World Health Organization has reported over 150 COVID-19 vaccines are being developed across the world. Furthermore, medical professionals developed interventions to curb the spread of the pandemic. Such interventions typically include lockdown, mass testing, quarantining, and first aid treatment services to COVID-19 infected persons. Therefore, it is clear that a pandemic such as COVID-19 requires strategic planning for an adequate response. A stable healthcare system and a skilled surveillance professionals are needed for adequate emergency response. Comprehensive support is needed for the achievement of a strategic emergency response plan. This comprehensive support include financial aid, guidance in logistics, adequate human resources, and well-coordinated control of a pandemic such as COVID-19.The capstone studies how Saudi Arabia responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project assesses whether the response was appropriate, as well as whether the required strategies and plans have been put in place for the management of future epidemics and pandemics outbreaks. Furthermore, the possible recommendations for future appropriate responses to CoV pandemics will be presented in the project. Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project Need for the projectThe way a nation responds to common diseases determines the quality of healthcare services offered in that country (Lohr, 1990). Therefore, appropriate responses by a country to pandemics and emerging diseases are a reflection of a quality health care system (Moghadas, Wu, Pizzi, and Yan, 2009). While it can be easy to prepare for commonly occurring diseases, preparedness for severe and unanticipated conditions is challenging. The potential reoccurrence of common diseases like malaria is higher than the potential of reappearing in a pandemic like SARS.The preparedness plan should not address only the current and immediate response. The plan should, however, should also consider long term recovery and reconstructions (Landesman, 2005). The preparation for emergency response requires adequate training of the professionals. The training helps the professionals to acquire the necessary skills needed in combating disasters. Furthermore, training programs are needed for other emergency responders. Such responders typically include volunteers, and medical personnel. This training makes it easier to manage the pandemic as skilled personnel are available.According to Algaissi et al., (2020), early and unprecedented precautionary measures for COVID-19 were witnessed in Saudi Arabia. The measures were put in place to prevent the introduction of SARS-COV-2 in the country and also in a preparation for the mitigation of its impact on arrival. The implementation of precautionary measures in the country was done early before the country reported its first case on March 2nd, 2020 (Algaissi, Hassanain, Alharbi, & Hashem 2020). Moreover, a national committee was formed to follow up global updates and preparation for the likely introduction and a spread of COVID-19 as early as January 2020. The committee consisted of the minister for health, minister for interior, minister for education, and other stakeholders. The first decision of stopping all direct flights between Saudi Arabia and China was announced on February 6th. This was nearly a month before the first COVID-19 case in the country. Tourism and all international entry to Umrah pilgrims were suspended on February 27th and close monitoring of Makkah and Madinah entry points was affected. On 28th, February, Inbound travel of people from SARS-COV-2 affected nations was banned. These early measures would have prevented the introduction of the SARS-COV-2 in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, case exportation to other countries would have been prevented. However, despite the mentioned measures the country reported its first case, on March 2nd and the virus continued spiking (Algaissi, Hassanain, Alharbi, & Hashem 2020). This shows that there is a gap for some adjustments to be made in the country’s response mechanisms to control the pandemic.The determination of the preparedness of Saudi Arabia to manage COVID-19 and other related emergencies can be construed from how Saudi Arabia approached and handled COVID-19. Noticeably, before the invasion of Covid-19, there were respiratory infections of relatively similar nature that affected part of the world and others the whole world.Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project. There are diverse differences and similarities between Covid-19 and the past severe respiratory illnesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome commonly known as SARS. MERS invaded the Middle East, which is inclusive of Saudi Arabia, where it was first reported, from 2012 while the SARS was a worldwide pandemic between 2002 and 2003. It is worth noting that the causes of MERS, SARS, and COVI-19 infections are related, and the resultant symptoms similar (Algaissi, Hassanain, Alharbi, & Hashem 2020). SARS was a result of a novel coronavirus transmission through zoonotic mechanisms just as MERS and COVID-19. The likelihood of the zoonotic transmissions having arisen from bats and then transferred to other animals and then to humans is higher in all cases.Containment of SARS was declared by WHO in 2003 on July 5 (Heymann, & Rodier, 2004). The total number of SARS cases reported in the 29 countries that it had affected added up to 8096, with deaths totaling 774 people. MERS, on the other hand, had a total of 2494 cases reported by the end of November 2019, with a total of 858 deaths spread across 27 countries. By September 2, 2020, the confirmed cases for COVID -19 have superseded the prior diseases in terms of confirmed cases, with the death toll across the world exceeding half a million people. The number of patients may be even higher, given that many mild and asymptomatic cases related to COVID -19 may not have been tested (Heymann, & Shindo, 2020).Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project It is assumed that the increase in cases and deaths due to the COVID-19 outbreak, indicates the lack of proper preparedness in Saudi Arabia. This project will help outline weaknesses in preparedness and failures in learning from prior pandemics that can be corrected in preparation for future pandemics and containment of the present pandemic, COVID-19. Saudi Arabia was expected to appropriately manage the COVID-19 pandemic due to her early experience with SARS and MERS pandemics. (According to whom? Cite your ref) Checking on why Saudi Arabia is unable to handle COVID-19 early enough despite prior encounters with SARS and MERS highlights the institutional weaknesses and preparedness gap in managing pandemics.Many governments allocate funds to develop emergency facilities and institutionalization of emergency mechanisms (Sung, & Lee, 2016). However, when the pandemic’s effect decreases or ends, the same funds are reallocated for different purposes until a similar encounter comes (Marron et al. 2020). Furthermore, the management of allocated funds has proved to be a problem. Despite Saudi Arabian government allocating funds for emergency management of COVID-19, the Saudi Arabian hospitals are unable to meet the demand for bed space and other medical facilities which is abnormally high (Algaissi et al., 2020). The medical personnel are unable to meet medical attention demand. There are severe flaws in the Saudi Arabian response mechanism that should be highlighted and solved despite continuous and successful efforts adopted to respond to Covid-19 after its outbreak.While many states like Saudi Arabia will want to be at the forefront of offering quality medical care and prompt medical solutions to its people during emergencies and even in ordinary times, there is a need for information on mechanisms that can be adapted to affect these aims. The project will thus offer some strategies that can be used by the government of Saudi Arabia to minimize the impact of a similar outbreak if it occurs. Also, information to other relevant stakeholders such as the medical personnel and the representatives of the public will help mitigate COVID -19 and any other future outbreaks of a similar nature.Lastly, this project can be a basis for other future research pieces on similar and related topics for students and other scholars as it will provide insights into the preparedness challenge across the world and specifically for Saudi Arabia. The recommendations will also be important if adopted by the relevant stakeholders in the COVID -19 management and successive pandemics impact mitigation. Literature ReviewCountries have put in place several strategies to manage the COVID-19 epidemic. According to Al-Tawfiq & Memish (2020), the World Health Organization has given several recommendations on how individual countries can protect their citizens against the virus’s contraction. WHO has reported that several levels of transmissions are caused by some factors such as the population in each country and the health conditions of citizens (Al-Tawfiq & Memish 2020).According to Al-Tawfiq & Memish (2020), WHO provided control mechanisms that can be followed by the countries in the Eastern-Mediterranean region, Saudi Arabia included. Several infection prevention methods, clinical management, and the engagement of the community were suggested. It was recommended that to avoid many death cases in the future, the Government should equip its health facilities with all the necessary health equipment such as ventilators and enough beds (Al-Tawfiq & Memish 2020). These health facilities should be readily equipped to accommodate a sizable number of patients. Additionally, the citizens living in respective countries should develop the art of healthy hygienic practices to prevent them from contracting any possible virus from the surfaces they touch (Al-Tawfiq & Memish 2020). The countries should be prepared with palliative care services (I don’t think you mean palliative. Most people understand to mean comfort care to those too ill or injured to survive.) to get ready for any future pandemic. All the hospitals in these countries should additionally be equipped with the biomedical equipment that is essential in attending to the needs of patients in critical conditions (Al-Tawfiq & Memish 2020). WHO also suggests that these countries ought to have equipped themselves with crucial drugs and other necessary supplements that would be important in taking care of COVID-19 patients (Al-Tawfiq & Memish 2020).A case study by Memish et al. (2017) relating to the Hajj event in Saudi Arabia mentioned the importance of certain emergency drugs such as ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. According to Memish et al. (2017), during the Hajj event, there was a need of using and keeping essential drugs in different countries. There was also a need for Saudi Arabia to protect her citizens and the visitors who come for the Hajj event. The Saudi Arabian government prepared for an apt response to any emerging infectious disease or virus emergence. During the Hajj event, the government organized a group of experts who provided the health sector with reliable and advanced healthcare plans in the whole country.In their “Hajj plans”, these experts highlighted the expected logistical support and the bodies responsible for communication in the Hajj as an entire season. Therefore, the Government can adopt this same approach in full time regardless of the event and prepare for any future pandemic of similar nature. It is also important to note that according to Memish et al. (2017), it was necessary to continuously monitor the diseases that are highly infectious with a motive to reduce their level of infection to other unaffected citizens. Therefore, to prevent COVID-19 and other future infectious diseases from spreading and causing severe effects, the Saudi Arabian government should be in a position to set an infectious disease control unit that will be tasked with conducting research on the possible pandemic.The outbreak of COVID-19 globally affected many activities. Most sporting activities, religious gatherings, and other political gatherings were banned due to this pandemic outbreak. Discussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project A team of health experts was selected to analyze the effects of this pandemic and the possible solutions that will be caused by the virus. According to Memish et al. (2014), this team was supposed to survey the effect brought by this pandemic and possible solutions that can be incorporated to prevent such developments in the future in the case of a similar infectious disease outbreak. The authors suggested that to avoid more deaths due to CoVs possible pandemics, the respective government should equip its hospitals with all the necessary health equipment such as ventilators and enough beds.After the outbreak of the COVID-19 virus globally, there was a need for every country to cancel all the gathering of masses with a motive to reduce the chances of the spread of this virus. According to Ahmed & Memish (2020), several factors had to be considered before such decisions were made. COVID-19 disease was found to be highly infectious and spread very fast from one person to another. There was a need to prevent any event that would lead to the gathering of masses. In Saudi Arabia, the most affected event that needed critical decision making is Hajj. The Saudi Arabian government decided to cancel this event because it would attract a big crowd.According to Ahmed & Memish (2020), in case of an outbreak of a pandemic similar to COVID-19, the government would be required to select a committee to help in decision making. The committee’s duty will be to ensure that the best decisions are made to prevent such a pandemic to the broader population in the entire country. Decisions such as canceling all the public gatherings and other events that would attract many people in one place without social distancing were made by the selected committee. Another decision that was concluded by the government to prevent the spread of such an infectious disease is the ban of internal travels that would otherwise attract more international persons into the country. Research Questions and Hypotheses Research questionsAn evaluation of whether Saudi Arabia was prepared for the virus is the point of focus. Reaching the answer to this question requires assessing the current response system of the Saudi Arabian government using the following guiding questions. First, has Saudi Arabia placed effective measures to handle coronavirus? Finally, what are some of the strategies that can be developed to help manage COVID-19 and other CoV pandemics? HypothesesThe project will focus on the justification of the following hypotheses following the research questions:First hypothesis H1: The response measures to COVID-19 that were put in place by Saudi Arabia are not sufficient. This insufficiency is shown by the severe impact of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia despite early preparedness measures.The second hypothesis H2: states that there are several significant strategies that the government can develop to help in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 and other CoV pandemics. MethodologyThe researcher will be((By study end, you must change future tense to past.) using a mixed-method approach to collect data using an online survey as a tool after acquiring an IRB approval letter see appendix one. The online survey will include open and closed-ended questions. I will code the responses for closed-ended questions into quantitative data using IBM and Excel software, then analyze. I will present the quantitative analysis using graphs, tables, percentages, and averages. For the answers to the open-ended questions, I will use the thematic analysis technique, which allows identification patters within their responses for coding.The study will use a sample of 45 participants. These participants will include personnel from the departments of; public safety, emergency, and healthcare. The participants from the public safety, emergency, and healthcare departments are preferred due to their important roles in emergency responses. Survey questions will collect information on the participants’ background experience with emergency responses in the country and their specific roles in the response team. After the collection of data, a debriefing statement will be issued to participants for deception explanation. Possible ChallengesSome of the anticipated challenges include understanding the sophisticated clinical data such as the clinical epidemiology pitfalls. In other words, medical data dependent on time, and thus they need an advanced method of statistical analysis to ensure that possible clinical pitfalls are avoided. Such pitfalls may include the risk of bias and immortal-time.The second challenge deals with the research articles from which information will be obtained. Currently, the publication rate of articles on COVID-19 is very high, and several articles have been presented onlineDiscussion: Emergency Preparedness Disaster Medicine and Management Capstone Project . Some of these articles have information that has not been adequately verified. The identification of verified articles may be a challenge.The last challenge expected is that of establishing contact with the appropriate people to interview. Following the current condition created by the coronavirus, it is not easy to reach out to people. Many people are very cautious, and they fear interacting with others due to fear of contracting the virus. Following this fact, it may be challenging to get data from some people. Discussion Suggested Solutions for the ChallengesTo solve the challenge of fear of contracting COVID-19, the researcher shall ensure that the guidelines be obeyed, which are provided by the WHO to take precautionary measures by avoiding contact with the participants. To achieve the precautionary measure, I will send a copy of the research questionnaire to the participants through online platforms like email, Facebook, among other relevant platforms. Concerning pitfalls in clinical data, I shall research the most current data to avoid using outdated information. The challenge of sources to be used shall be solved using research papers that used a large data quantity and peer review. Finally, the preferred statistical analysis shall be settled on depending on the trend of data collected. With all these challenges addressed, am certain that the project data shall help in arriving at a believable conclusion.Comment The need to carry out a capstone project on the topic “Emergency Preparedness for COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia” has been shown with several pieces of evidence from the project proposal. Pieces of evidence have typically indicated that despite the early preparation measures to curb COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, the pandemic still got into the country, causing severe impact. The arrival of the pandemic, regardless of the preparedness measures put in place, indicates that there is a gap for the study. I, therefore, recommend the approval of the capstone to help the country with more appropriate measures that will help to manage COVID-19 and other CoVs pandemics that may emerge. ReferencesAhmed, Q. A., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). The cancellation of mass gatherings (MGs)? Decision making in the time of COVID-19. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 101631Algaissi, A. A., Alharbi, N. K., Hassanain, M., & Hashem, A. M. (2020). Preparedness and Response to COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: Building on MERS Experience. Journal of Infection and Public Health .Al-Tawfiqa Jaffar and Memishd, Z. (2020).COVID-19 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and Saudi Arabia: prevention and therapeutic strategies. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271262/ de Pablo, G. S., Serrano, J. V., Catalan, A., Arango, C., Moreno, C., Ferre, F., … & Fusar-Poli, P. (2020). Impact of coronavirus syndromes on the physical and mental health of health care workers: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of affective disorders.Ebrahim, S. H., & Memish, Z. A. (2020). COVID-19: preparing for superspreader potential among Umrah pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Lancet (London, England) , 395 (10227), e48.Gautret, P., Lagier, J. C., Parola, P., Meddeb, L., Mailhe, M., Doudier, B. & Honoré, S. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 105949.Heymann, D. L., & Rodier, G. (2004). Global surveillance, national surveillance, and SARS. Emerging infectious diseases , 10 (2), 173.Heymann, D. L., & Shindo, N. (2020). COVID-19: what is next for public health? The Lancet , 395 (10224), 542-545.Khan, S., Siddique, R., Li, H., Ali, A., Shereen, M. A., Bashir, N., & Xue, M. (2020). Impact of coronavirus outbreak on psychological health. Journal of Global Health, 10(1).Landesman, L. Y. (2005). Disaster-related surveillance and emergency information systems. Public health management of disasters: the practice guide. New York: American Public Health America , 97.Lohr, K. N. (Ed.). (1990). Medicare: a strategy for quality assurance, volume I (Vol. 1). National Academies Press.Marron, J. M., Joffe, S., Jagsi, R., Spence, R. A., & Hlubocky, F. J. (2020). Ethics and resource scarcity: ASCO recommendations for the oncology community during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Oncol , 38 (19), 2201-2205.Memish, Z. A., Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Almasri, M., Azhar, E. I., Yasir, M., Al-Saeed, M. S., & Assiri, A. (2017). Neisseria meningitidis nasopharyngeal carriage during the Hajj: a cohort study is evaluating the need for ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. Vaccine, 35(18), 2473-2478.Memish, Z. A., Zumla, A., Hakeem, R. F., Assiri, A., Turkestani, A., Al Harby, K. D., & McCloskey, B. (2014). Hajj: infectious disease surveillance and control. The Lancet, 383(9934), 2073-2082.Moghadas, S. M., Pizzi, N. J., Wu, J., & Yan, P. (2009). Managing public health crises: the role of models in pandemic preparedness. Influenza and other respiratory viruses , 3 (2), 75-79.Oshitani, H., Kamigaki, T., & Suzuki, A. (2008). Major issues and challenges of influenza pandemic preparedness in developing countries. Emerging infectious diseases , 14 (6), 875.Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T., Mulrow, C. D., & Moher, D. (2020). Mapping of reporting guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses generated a comprehensive item bank for future reporting guidelines. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 118, 60-68.Sung, I., & Lee, T. (2016). Optimal allocation of emergency medical resources in a mass casualty incident: Patient prioritization by column generation. European Journal of Operational Research , 252 (2), 623-634.Costanzo, M., De Giglio, M. A. R., & Roviello, G. N. (2020). SARS-CoV-2: recent reports on antiviral therapies based on lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir and other drugs for the treatment of the new coronavirus. Current medicinal chemistry . APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: IRB Approval Appendix 3: Debriefing statement form. Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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