[SOLUTION] Criminal Investigation

TASK::  Read each chapter sections in your textbook. View the YouTube presentations Read the presentation chapter notes. Must be at least 200 words or more and in your own words. The response for each chapter entries must be more than a couple of lines and reflect what was in the chapters so we know you have an understanding of its contents.                CHAPTER 1::THE EVOLUTION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND FORENSIC SCIENCE “The police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.” – Robert Peel Think about the above quote, and view this short video below (1:36 minutes – optional) that discusses it. Do you agree? Sir Robert Peel? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jR6LBb0GxBQ   CHAPTER 2:: THE LEGAL ASPECT OF INVESTIGATION “The police must obey the law while enforcing the law.” – Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953 – 1969) All law enforcement officers, uniformed and plainclothes, conduct investigations. That is a statement of fact. There are, of course, differing concentrations of the investigative process and varying responsibilities among different units and different people. Describe whether a “John Doe” arrest warrant is ever valid, and if so, under what circumstances.   Define probable cause.  Describe the evolution of the Exclusionary Rule.  Explain the “Silver Platter” doctrine.  Describe the reason for a search incident to a lawful arrest.   Explain the limitations on the search of a motor vehicle incident to an arrest.  Describe at least five circumstances that justify a search under exigent circumstances. Define the law enforcement policy issue that determines whether an inventory search is lawful. Identify the primary requirement that makes a plain view seizure lawful. Describe the limitations of a stop and frisk encounter.       CHAPTER 3:: INVESTIGATORS, THE INVESTIGATIVE PROCESS, AND THE CRIME SCENE “Every society gets the kind of law enforcement it deserves. What is equally true is that every community gets the kind of law enforcement it insists on” – Robert Kennedy Think about the above quote. If a community does not deal effectively with crime, crime will increase and more financial resources will need to be spent on law enforcement. People will lose confidence in the government and eventually become more and more fearful of the world outside their homes. In short, if crimes are not solved effectively, our quality of life will diminish.   CHAPTER4:: PHYSICAL EVIDENCE This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong; it cannot perjure itself; it cannot be wholly absent. Only its interpretation can err. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value.” – Paul L. Kirk, PhD, from the book Crime Investigation: Physical Evidence and the Police Physical evidence can link a specific person, or persons, to a crime scene. Physical evidence is frequently used in court for prosecution and can and does lead to convictions. If physical evidence is to be useful in exonerating the innocent and pursuing suspects, it must be treated in accordance with its importance. The evidence must be located, its position documented, be collected, be identified by marks/writing on it and/or on the package in which it is placed, and be transmitted to the evidence room or the crime laboratory while the collector is maintaining the chain of custody.   CHAPTER5::INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION “In the absence of other effective measures the following procedures to safeguard the Fifth Amendment privilege must be observed: the person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be clearly informed that he has the right to remain silent, and that anything he says will be used against him in court; he must be clearly informed that he has the right to consult with a lawyer and to have the lawyer with him during interrogation, and that, if he is indigent, a lawyer will be appointed to represent him.” – from Miranda v. Arizona, June 13, 1966 Miranda v. Arizona Argument Most of us know about “Miranda rights” from having watched television crime dramas at some time in our lives. However, did you know that these requirements only apply to an in-custody interrogation? In other words, if a person is not in custody and about to be interrogated, Miranda rights do not apply. In every criminal investigation process, interviewing and interrogation are among the most important means of obtaining needed information about a crime. What defines custody and interrogation? Case decisions vary, and we will look at some examples in this lesson.   CHAPTER6::FIELD NOTES AND REPORTING There is no magic to taking good notes, just common sense. It’s simply a matter of being thorough and accurate. — Brian Pitzer How does an investigator obtain and record information relating to a crime? He or she needs to know what questions to ask. Questions beginning with who, what, when, where, how, and why are essential in any investigation.   CHAPTER 7: THE FOLLOW-UP INVESTIGATION AND INVESTIGATIVE RESOURCE “Law enforcement officers are never ‘off duty.’ They are dedicated public servants who are sworn to protect public safety at any time and place that the peace is threatened. They need all the help that they can get.” – Barbara Boxer, United States Senator Does law enforcement follow up on every crime? Certain crimes, such as murder, rape, and child abuse, are always going to receive a follow-up investigation, but what about crimes such as car theft and burglary? To ensure that the use of investigative resources is warranted, other crimes are screened. Only those that have some promise for success receive a follow-up investigation. That is, is there a realistic probability that the crime will be solved if further resources are expended? In other words, what are the solvability factors? CHAPTER13:: ROBBERY “Bad seed is a robbery of the worst kind: for your pocketbook not only suffers by it, but your preparations are lost and a season passes away unimproved.”– George Washington How many types of robberies can you think of? What can we do to help prevent robberies? What challenges typically face the investigator?   CHAPTER14::BURGLARY The nature of burglary has remained the same throughout history; however, the method in which burglaries are committed is constantly changing. In ancient Egypt, thieves broke into the tombs of the pharaohs to steal the riches; today, thieves may drive a truck through a window (smash and grab) stealing whatever they can. Describe the characteristics of different types of burglaries. List the characteristics of professional and amateur burglars. Outline the steps in the burglary investigation checklist.  Specify actions officers responding to burglary in-progress calls should take.  Recognize burglary tools.  Identify the types of evidence to collect in safe burglary cases.  Explain the laws and methods associated with attacks on ATMs.   CHAPTER15::LARCENY THEFT/WHITE-COLLAR CRIME “Greed is a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without ever reaching satisfaction.”–Erich Fromm This chapter deals with two groups of crimes: larceny/theft and white-collar crime. The traditional definition of larceny/theft is the unlawful taking and carrying away of the tangible personal property of another with the intent to permanently deprive that person of his interest in the property. Tangible personal property means things that have both a physical existence that can be touched and intrinsic value—such as jewelry, lawn mowers, cameras, laptop computers, televisions, furniture and clothing, and collectibles such as coins and civil war uniform buttons.   CHAPTER16::VEHICLE THEFTS AND RELATED OFFENSES Not only does auto theft cost the victim time and money, but it costs society, because it drives insurance premiums up and many times stolen vehicles are used to commit other crimes.—Charles Montaldo Did you know that an auto theft occurs in the U.S. about every 40 seconds? In the U.S., it is not out of the ordinary for a family to finance or own more than $30,000 in motor vehicles. Yet the automobile, even though highly vulnerable, is the least protected of all property subject to theft. The vehicle, its accessories and the property inside are all targets for thieves. Identify types of motor vehicle theft. List techniques for disposing of stolen motor vehicles. Describe challenges associated with the theft investigation of heavy equipment and farm equipment. Identify major investigative resources. Discuss methods for assisting in the identification of a recovered vehicle. Describe vehicle fire-investigation methods.  Explain vehicle and equipment theft-prevention approaches


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