Collaboration and Crisis Trauma: Counselor Roles and Relationships Section II.G.1.b & II.G.1.cStudent Directions: Complete Essay #1 in LIVETEXT.1. Empathy is viewed as an essential aspect of the counseling relationship. Discuss the difference between primary and advanced accurate empathy. What barriers exist to the development of empathy? How might these barriers be overcome? Empathy refers to the ability of the counselor to truly understand the client from within the clients perspective. It often involves communicating accurately the feelings and meanings of clients statements, thereby demonstrating an active understanding of cli- ents concerns. Empathy is not sympathy: The empathic counselor is trying to make objective sense of the clients experience, not demonstrate concern, pity, or sorrow for his or her pain. Egan (2014) distinguishes between two levels of empathy: primary- level and advanced-level accurate empathy. Primary-level empathy refers to the terchangeability between the clients statements and the counselors responses. At this level of empathic responding, the counselor communicates a basic understanding of the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of the client (You are feeling sad). Advanced-level empathy is built on the primary-level base and emphasizes the counselors responding in a way that facilitates the deeper exploration of relevant issues (You are feeling sad because you cant get back the time you wasted drinking). What makes advanced empathy particularly facilitative is that it captures the leading edge of a clients experi- ence, what is just beyond the clients own awareness. Effective therapeutic counseling relationships are based on the sensitive and timely use of both levels of empathy.Novice counselors often mistakenly believe they should be able to show correct empathy for their clients feelings most of the time; but in fact, being empathic is very challenging, and incorrect attempts at empathy are a normal part of counsel- ing. Indeed, according to Kohut (1984), empathic failures can be transformed by the counselor into opportunities for healing. When the counselor tries to communi- cate an understanding of a clients feelings or thoughts and gets it wrong, the client may initially feel a sense of hurt or disconnection in the relationship. If the coun- selor recognizes the clients discomfort and apologizes for the mistake, the counselor-client bond is strengthened; repeated episodes of this failureapology sequence assist the client in better tolerating the empathic failures that are inevita- ble in all intimate relationships (Wolf, 1988).While Rogers originally conceived of empathy as the means by which a coun- selor can understand another individuals inner experience, advances in multicul- tural counseling now view empathy within a cultural context (Chung & Bemak, 2002). This is highlighted in Table 4.1Guidelines for Establishing Empathy across Cultures 1. Communicate an interest in learning more about your clients cultural identities (note plural). 2. Demonstrate an awareness and sensitivity about your clients culture, as well as a great desire to learn more. 3. Increase knowledge about the historical and political background of your clients. 4. Understand the ways that your client may have encountered oppression, discrimination, powerlessness, and prejudices. 5. Become aware of cultural differences that exist between you and your clientand discuss them openly. 6. Elicit honest feedback from clients about the ways they feel mostand leastunderstood. 7. Initiate interventions that are culturally respectful and appropriate. 8. Make use of healing practices and language that are consistent with your clients culture.2. In the dynamic interaction that occurs in a crisis, the three principle components are (a) worker, (b) client, (c) ecological-cultural determinants. Explain what is meant by this statement.3. Describe what types of collaborative efforts and/or consultations that a counselor might engage in over the course of his or her career. This assignment should include at least three scholarly references outside of your textbook. This assignment should be at least three pages, double spaced, in length not including the title page or reference page and should thoroughly discuss each of these areas. This paper should be in APA Format with a title page. Please also review the rubric located in LIVETEXT for additional information. This will be used for your grade and feedback. You will submit this assignment in LIVETEXT AND CANVAS. The assignment must be submitted in both places to receive a gradeBook used in course -Introduction to Counseling: Voices from the Field, 8th EJeffrey Kottler
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