Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper

Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper THE OLD TESTAMENT IS ONE OF THE FORMATIVE DOCUMENTS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION. How has the Old Testament, as a whole, influenced your chosen profession of Organizational Leadership and Healthcare Management? Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper For example, if you are in Education, you might say that students learned to read from reading the Old Testament. If you are in Law Enforcement, you might say that many of our laws have a basis in the Old Testament. Strive to be creative and resourceful in your answer. Go for “the big picture.” Please consult this website before submitting this paper back to me, https://bethelu.libguides.com/researchforclass . Also, in addition to the paper, please summarize your findings and post. This summary part should be 250 words and two scholarly sources, including the textbook (Tullock, J., & McEntire, M., (2012). The Old Testament Story, (9th Ed.). Pearson Learning Solutions), if you choose, are required. Everything is to be in APA format. rel_1110_unit_1_read.pdf S A U N D E R S The Old Testament Story S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Ninth Edition S A U N D E R S John H. Tullock S Professor Emeritus R Belmont University . , The Old Testament Story Revised by G Mark McEntire A Professor of Religion R Belmont University R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 1 S A U The Book and NThose Who Study It D E R S S R . Timeline 1200 B.C.E. First mention of Israel on the Merneptah Stele in Egypt , 500 B.C.E. 200 B.C.E. 100 C.E. 400 C.E. 1000 C.E. 1450 C.E. 1535 C.E. 1611 C.E. Approximate date for the completion of the final form of the Torah Approximate date for the beginningG of translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek Approximate date for the closing ofA the Hebrew canon R Approximate date of the copying of the Vatican and Alexandrian Codices of the Septuagint R Copying of the Leningrad Codex Y Invention of the printing press by Gutenburg and the production of the first printed Bible First complete English translation of2the Bible by Coverdale 0 of the Bible Completion of the King James Version Chapter Outline I. II. III. IV. V. VI. 9 0 T S The Old Testament: What Is It? How It Began How It Developed The Work of Scholars Archaeology as a Tool for Understanding Why Study the Old Testament? 1 The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chapter 1 • Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper# The Book and Those Who Study It CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter serves as an introduction to the academic study ofSthe Old Testament. The first task is to define Old Testament, a task that becomes more difficult when we realize that different religious Adifferent ways. The next step is to communities understand and use this collection of literature in describe the process by which the Old Testament came into being, U a task that can only be hypothetical at many points because of a lack of evidence. The remainder of the chapter describes how N different methods of reading, scholars of various types approach the Old Testament, by examining and how the historical study, including archaeology, is appliedD to the understanding of the text. E R S THE OLD TESTAMENT: WHAT IS IT? Definition The Old Testament is a set of texts that originated among the people who, at differing times in their history, have been called Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews, and which became their sacred scriptures. S The Old Testament is actually a library of books, produced over a period of more than a thousand 1 Jesus, the Apostles, and members of years (1200–200 B.C.E.). This was the Bible that was known to R the early Christian church—especially in the period before the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in . 70 C.E., when the church was still viewed as another Jewish sect. After 70 C.E., the collection of Christian writings (which began with some of Paul’s letters and,the earliest of the Gospels) began to be viewed as sacred. And thus having the status of scripture, Christians began to refer to the Hebrew Bible as the Old Covenant or the Old Testament and their sacred writings as the New Covenant or G Jeremiah (Jer. 31:31–34). the New Testament. They took the term covenant from the prophet “Tell me a story” is the frequent plea of a child. It is through A stories that we transmit to our children our values, our family traditions, and much of our view of life. So it has always been with Rmany forms: the accounts of the humankind, and so it was with ancient Israel. Its stories took creation of the universe and of people, its legal system, the oracles R of its prophets, the songs of its singers, and the wisdom of its sages. All these are part of the Old Testament story. Y The Literary Forms That Carry the Story 2 NARRATIVE. In our culture, we normally expect narrative to2be the means of communicating a story. Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper Thus, we are not surprised that much of the Old Testament is made up of narrative material. Readers soon discover, however, that stories that come from a 0 very different time and place follow very different conventions. One of the most striking examples 9 is the lack of descriptive language in these stories. The most important human character in the Old Testament is Moses. He dominates 0 four large books, from Exodus to Deuteronomy, yet there is not a word about his physical appearT or has blue eyes or brown. The ance. Readers are not told whether he is tall or short, large or small, stories of the Old Testament have a density and economy about them that makes them significantly S different from most contemporary written stories. The story of Cain and Abel, in Genesis 4:1–16, is one of the most powerful and influential stories in all of Western culture, yet it is slightly less than 200 words long in Hebrew and was translated to slightly less than 400 English words in the King James Version of the Bible. John Steinbeck’s classic novel, East of Eden, is in many ways a modern retelling of the Cain and Abel story, and in its most commonly published form is nearly 700 pages long. The narratives in the Bible often make use of, or are supplemented by, other literary forms such as laws, songs, genealogies, and lists. Yet these forms are woven into the narrative in such a way that they become a vital part of it. Narrative is the principal literary vehicle from Genesis through 2 Kings, in major portions of the prophetic books, including Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 • The Book and Those Who Study It Jonah, and Haggai, and in the less familiar books of the Old Testament, such as 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, Esther, Daniel, and Ruth. S What is unusual about all this is that narrative was not a common literary device in other surviving literature from the ancient Near East. Outside of legal codes, most of what is known about its A gods, goddesses, legendary heroes, and kings is told in poetry. Poetry’s primary function is to impart U to give the stories a sense of time a sense of emotion and praise for its subject, while narrative serves and place, to flesh out their characters, and to impart a sense ofN the flow of life to what is being told. There are at least two stories in the Old Testament that are told twice, once in prose narrative and once in poetry. The first is the crossing of the sea byD the Israelites as they were pursued through the wilderness by Pharaoh’s army, after their escapeEfrom slavery in Egypt. Exodus 14 tells the story in prose, then the Israelites, led by Moses, sing the “Song of the Sea” in Exodus 15, R of Judges 5 conveys the sense of which tells the story again in a different way. The powerful poetry celebration for the LORD’s delivery of Israel by the hand of Deborah S from a powerful enemy. This “Song of Deborah” is preceded by a prose account of the same story in Judges 4. LEGAL MATERIALS. The Old Testament contains numerous sets of laws, which have been S placed into the narrative of the exodus from Egypt and the journey through the wilderness. Rto come from different times and Closer examination of these laws later will reveal that they seem places, but their placement within a story provides a powerful . and dynamic way of preserving and presenting legal material. , One would naturally expect Psalms and the Song of Songs to be poetry. What might come as a surprise to those who have not used modern translations of the Bible is that large portions of the books of the prophets are also in poetic form. The line G between poetry and prose is not always clear. They are perhaps better understood as two ends of a continuum rather than two disA tinct categories. Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper The first chapter of the Bible, Genesis 1, is typically understood as prose, and is printed that way, but careful reading of this text reveals that it R has many of the qualities of poetry. POETRY. R Job, Ecclesiastes—is almost WISDOM LITERATURE. Although wisdom literature—Proverbs, entirely in poetic form, it is a special category because of its subject Y matter. It discusses matters of everyday life in a way that is not closely connected to specific religious traditions and ponders difficult, philosophical questions about suffering and the meaning of existence. In structure, it ranges from extended wisdom poems to one-line proverbs. Except 2 for Chapters 1 through 2 and 42:7–16, Job is an extended poetic drama in the form of a dialogue between Job and his friends, followed by two speeches by God. The book of Ecclesiastes is 0 a mixture of prose and poetry. 9 0 As it stands now, the Old Testament starts at the beginning of all things—the Creation—but this T order is probably not how the story of Israel was first told. Throughout the Old Testament, the one theme that continually appears is the Exodus. This was theSsupreme event in Israelite history. The Crucial Event Israel became a people through this event and those that followed. Thus, it is commemorated in song, in story (Exodus to Deuteronomy), and in numerous references in Psalms (such as 66:6; 68:7–18; 78:11–55; 114; 135:8–12; and 136:10–22), as well as in other places in the Bible. A classic summary of the Exodus story is found in Deuteronomy 26:5–9: You shall make this response before the LORD your God: “A wandering Aramean was my ancestor; he went down into Egypt and lived there as an alien, few in number, and there he became a great nation, mighty and populous. When the Egyptians treated us harshly and afflicted us, by imposing hard labor on us, we cried to the LORD, the God The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 3 4 Chapter 1 • The Book and Those Who Study It of our ancestors; the LORD heard our voice and saw our affliction, our toil, and our oppression. The LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand and an outS signs and wonders; and he stretched arm, with a terrifying display of power, and with brought us into this place and gave us this land, a land flowing A with milk and honey.” The Exodus event made Israel aware of itself as a people with Ucommon experiences that united them. Just as a baby first notices its fingers and toes, leading to the awareness of itself as a person, NI?” question is answered, there inso Israel became aware of itself as a people. When the “Who am evitably follows the question. Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper “Where did I come from?” The D “Aramean” in Deuteronomy 26:5 is Jacob, whom all Israelites came to understand as their ancestor. E begin to look at their history. So When people begin to ask these kinds of questions, they Israel, in times of literary activity, had historians who gathered Rtogether the memories and traditions of the people and began to weave them into a story. In this story, they not only explained S back through the patriarchs to their own origins in the Exodus, but also carried that explanation the origin of the human race and even to the universe itself. As the nation grew, the history was expanded and revised, either in written or oral form. Then, when the tragedy of the Babylonian S Exile struck and it looked as though not only historical materials, but also the words of the prophets, the wisdom materials, and the songs of the people might R be lost, a concerted effort was made to gather together and preserve the literary heritage. HOW IT BEGAN . , How did the Old Testament come to be written? Did someone just suddenly decide, “I’m going to write the Old Testament”? Or was it a more complicated process? G To answer this question with certainty is impossible. A New Testament writer, for whom A the Old Testament was the Bible, spoke of how “Holy men of old wrote as they were moved by the R the conviction that God was the Spirit of God” (2 Pet. 1:21). Yet even that statement, setting forth initiator of the process that led to the writing, also suggests that the development of the Old R Testament was an historical process. The following is a suggested scheme of how the Old Y Testament may have been developed. First the Event 2 Nothing happens without a cause; something must trigger it. The Old Testament grew out of the events and circumstances of the life of the people of Israel.0Although the Exodus and related events served as the catalyst for the development of the sacred literature of the Israelites, many 9 events before and after that crucial event contributed to the material resources from which the 0 Old Testament was constructed. T S First, things happened. The people to whom things happened told others about their experiences. Then the Story—the First Interpretation Just as every family has a fund of stories about various relatives, much of the Old Testament is composed of stories that came from the oral tradition of the people who were to be known as Israel. Not all the stories, however, were based on actual events. Some stories, known as etiologies, for example, were created to answer “why” questions. Other stories, like Jotham’s fable about the trees (Judg. 9:7–15), or Samson’s riddle (Judg. 14:14), were told to make a point. Telling the stories over the centuries also had its effects on their nature and their subsequent interpretation. The study of how literary texts are interpreted is called hermeneutics.Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 • The Book and Those Who Study It Then the Reinterpretation When things happen to us, we interpret them in the light of S existing circumstances. Later, however, as we look back, we may view a particular event in an entirely different way than we did Aa different insight into its signifiwhen it happened. Time and circumstances may have given us cance for us. For instance, an event once seen as a disaster may U later be looked on as something very positive and meaningful for us. N Then the History—the Continuing Interpretation D The Old Testament grew from such hindsight. At some point E in the life of Israel as a people, someone, or a number of someones, looked back at the past and concluded that God had been at work in the lives of the people—calling their ancestors out ofR paganism, making himself known to them, leading them from the Tigris and Euphrates River S valleys to Palestine and eventually into Egypt and bondage. But even that bondage, a disaster by most normal standards, was God’s way of preserving the Israelites as a people. God raised up a leader, Moses, and prepared him, as the adopted son of the Egyptian princess and as a Midianite Sshepherd, for the difficult job of leading a band of slaves and a mixed multitude of others into the Sinai desert, there to weld this R motley group into a people united in covenant to God. Furthermore, God led them to a land—a land that had. been promised to their ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. After a long and difficult period, the land became theirs. But their , troubles were not over. After many years of struggle to achieve some kind of national unity, they finally settled on a monarchy as the kind of government they would have. After a sputtering start under Saul, the storytellers describe a remarkable growth during G David’s time, when the nation reached its greatest territorial limits, enabling it to withstand any challenge. Solomon gained the A economic prosperity. Yet, he fruits of his father’s success, enjoying a time of peace and great sowed seeds of discontent that would come to full flower under Rhis son Rehoboam, whose unwise policies resulted in the kingdom’s splitting into two separate states. R For two centuries, the two parts of the once proud kingdom of David limped along— sometimes as enemies, sometimes as allies. At times, in theirYperiods of friendship, they combined forces to bring a measure of prosperity to their people. But for most of the time, they were like pawns, toyed with by the great powers of the time—Egypt and Assyria. Finally, in 721 B.C.E., Israel, the Northern Kingdom, was blotted out of existence by 2the Assyrian giant who destroyed its cities and deported all that was left of its upper classes, replacing them with foreigners who 0 the Samaritans. were to intermarry with the poor people left in the land, producing Judah, the Southern Kingdom, struggled on for just over 9 a century, but it too fell, this time to Babylonia, the nation that had succeeded Assyria as the terror of the Near East. 0 As had been the case with Israel, most of the members of Judah’s surviving leadership were deported, but different factors were at work that allowed theTpeople to keep their identity. The prophets had warned that such an occurrence was likely if Judah persisted in its wrongdoing. S Seemingly, the stability of the government in the south gave the people a greater sense of unity, aiding them in holding together in the time of national disaster. Bethel College REL1010 Influence of Old Testament in Healthcare Profession Paper Then, too, the Babylonians seem to have contributed to the situation by settling the people in communities in which they could follow the advice of the prophet Jeremiah and live as normal a life as possible (Jer. 29). In response to the trauma of the Exile and the threat of annihilation, Jewish scholars began in earnest to collect and shape the literature of the people. Although history writing may have begun earlier, the Exile gave the work a new sense of urgency. Along with the writing of history, poetry was collected, the law was codified, and the words of the great prophets were arranged and The Old Testament Story, Ninth Edition, by John Tullock and Mark McEntire. Published by Pearson Learning Solutions. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 5 6 Chapter 1 • The Book and Those Who Study It preserved. Much of the Old Testament as we now know it took shape during the Exile and immediately afterward. S preservation of their traditions, With the people now convinced of the importance of the the period following the Exile, while not a time of glory, wasA a time of collection, preservation, and interpretation that reached its climax in the final canonization of the Old Testament early in U the Christian era. N HOW IT DEVELOPED D The Process E Did the process of forming the literature of the Old TestamentR begin during the Exile? The answer most certainly is “No.” The development of the Old Testament may be compared to a river and its tributaries. A river does not begin full sized. Rather, it is a S combination of dozens of smaller streams that have joined together to form the river. So it was with the Old Testament. Some will be quick to point out that it began with God. Even so, God worked through human agents, and it is S the work of these human agents that is being discussed. … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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