Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters

Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Please write an literature review for the following subtopics: Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters 1. existing laws or regulations (national or local) with regard to establishing institutional safety committee/s; 2. factors contributing to the degree of preparedness and level of awareness to internal disasters and safety plan/s, respectively; and 3. impact of unpreparedness (in terms of expenditures toward rehabilitation) 4. The effectiveness of educational program to develop hospital disaster preparedness research_proposal_2.pdf HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 4 Evaluating and Developing the Preparedness for Internal Disasters at King Fahd Central Hospital in Jizan City, Saudi Arabia In recent decades, Saudi Arabia has experienced a variety of disasters, including floods and fires (Alraga, 2017). A disaster is an event in which dire, unexpected circumstances take place (Shammah, 2018). When disasters strike, they will likely cause adverse effects on the affected community’s infrastructure, including hospitals. Hospitals are expected to follow medical requirements by adhering to the standardized guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to be prepared for internal and external disasters (Aladhari et al. 2015). Experts believe that hospital disaster preparedness (HDP) is critical for patients, hospital staff, and communities since if hospitals are not prepared for disasters, all the people who are inside the hospitals will likely be at high risk. When hospital staff are well-prepared for internal disasters, they will likely minimize the adverse outcomes of such disasters inside their hospitals to protect patients by, for instance, implementing an active evacuation plan. Hospital staff should acquire and develop their knowledge and skills to prepare for, respond to, and recover from internal disasters effectively. Statement of the Problem Many Saudi hospitals have struggled with preparing for and responding to internal disasters effectively due to inadequate education and training among hospital staff in disaster management. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Bajow and Alkhalil (2014) conducted a study that showed shortcomings of many Saudi hospitals regarding preparations for the 2009 major flooding that struck Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia. Not only was flood preparation one of the significant shortcomings when it comes to responding to internal disasters, but also preparation for hospital fires was a critical oversight in some of the Saudi hospitals. For example, in 2015, a major fire occurred at Jazan General HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 5 Hospital, in which twenty-five people died, and more than 100 people were injured (Boshnaq, 2015). Boshnaq (2015) states that the previous Health Minister, Khalid al-Falih, admitted that the preparedness system of the Ministry of Health in Jazan General Hospital was not adequately equipped to respond to this disaster. The Ministry of Health News in Saudi Arabia (2016), Mohammed bin Nasser, who is the governor of Jizan City, asserted that the emergency and disaster preparedness plans in Jizan City hospitals need to be well-developed in order to respond to disasters in any hospital in the city effectively. Purpose of the Study This study will achieve two purposes. The primary purpose is to evaluate and develop the internal disaster preparedness at King Fahd Central Hospital (KFCH) in Jizan City. Based on the results of the evaluation, this study will provide the hospital with an educational program to develop the preparedness of the staff for internal hospital disasters. The second purpose is to review how the lack of education and training programs in disaster management have adversely impacted some Saudi hospitals in their preparedness for both internal and external disasters and to create possible solutions for these issues by showing that implementing educational programs that focus on disaster preparedness and response will likely solve these problems. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Research Questions 1- Are the hospital staff familiar with the internal disaster plan of KFCH? 2- Are the hospital staff prepared to perform an evacuation to respond to internal disasters such as fire, flood, and power outage? 3- How can the hospital staff improve their ability to operate an evacuation plan effectively? 4- Why should the hospital staff understand and practice the internal disaster plan, including the evacuation plan? HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 6 5- How can the Saudi Ministry of Health develop its hospitals and employees to be more prepared for hospital evacuation during internal disasters? Significance of the Study Since there has not been a study focused on hospital preparedness for internal disasters in Jizan City, in which some hospitals have experienced power outages and floods, and one hospital has been impacted and unable to operate due to fire since 2015, this study will be valuable as it will focus on the largest hospital in this city. This study will facilitate the hospital staff becoming more knowledgeable and aware of the hospital’s emergency plan for internal disasters, including fires, floods, and power outages. The results of this study and the educational program that will be created will lead to the development of the hospital staff’s skills in operating and implementing the hospital evacuation plan and activating the internal disaster plan during internal disasters. According to the medical director of KFCH, the hospital has its internal disaster plan, and it is written in Arabic language since the majority of the hospital staff are Arabic speakers. However, there are some workers who are English speakers and do not understand Arabic. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Thus, both the non-Arabic speakers and the Arabic speakers will be invited to participate in the project to evaluate and develop their preparedness for internal disasters. While completing this study, a collaboration will be made with the medical director to create an educational program as a PowerPoint presentation based on the evaluation results. In other words, the medical director will be provided with the areas that need to be addressed and added to the internal disaster plan to create the program and present it to the hospital staff to be more familiar with activating the internal disaster plan and implementing the evacuation plan. HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 7 Limitations This study focuses on only one hospital, KFCH in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. The focus of this study is to evaluate the hospital’s preparedness for internal disasters exclusively, and not include external incidents. However, the conclusion of this study will recommend further studies that focus on both internal and external disasters. Saudi Central Board for Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions (CBAHI) The challenges posed by different types of disasters in hospitals are unique. Hospital disasters can often occur due to the negligence of safety measures (Monroe, 2018). King Fahd Central Hospital in Jizan has been accredited by the Saudi Central Board for Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions (CBAHI). Therefore, KFCH is expected to adhere to the safety measures of CBAHI to be prepared for such as emergencies and disasters. One CBAHI standard is that the hospital should define the expectations for performance that would be measurable, attainable, and reasonable to establish proper standards for, such as preparing for and responding to disasters (CBAHI, 2016). It is thus vital that the hospital staff at KFCH have the ability to handle CBAHI safety measures. Management of information and data in hospital databases and files is another standard measure of CBAHI that needs to be handled effectively. It is crucial to implement safety measures as a process of protecting or preventing information from such disasters as fire, floods, and power loss (CBAHI, 2016). Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters The protection of such critical information, including the health records of patients, is a crucial demonstration of hospital standards and high standards of professionalism. It is also vital to have disaster plans on medication management because hospitals may run out of medicine during major disasters. In such a case, hospitals can have an elaborate disaster management system that addresses medicinal shortages, such as having HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 8 pharmaceutical substitution protocols (CBAHI, 2016). Thus, emergency preparedness plans for medication during disaster should be implemented whenever there is a high demand for medication. Literature Review Saudi Arabia has experienced many different types of disasters, including both internal and external. These disasters have destroyed residential, business, and medical infrastructures, including hospitals (Alraga, 2017). They have also killed and injured many people in the affected cities. For example, the 2015 fire at Jazan General Hospital killed 25 persons and injured more than 100, and the 2009 flooding in Jeddah, caused 163 deaths and over 10,000 injuries (Alraga, 2017). Furthermore, as a result of this disaster, many of the injured people faced difficulties in reaching healthcare facilities since the flooding dramatically impacted the road infrastructure and damaged many of the hospitals. Thus, it is crucial that the Saudi government develop its strategies and plans to prepare its facilities, such as hospitals, for disasters. What Could Have Been Done to Prevent the 2015 Fire at Jazan General Hospital? Disaster preparedness has become a requirement in designing all modern structures, including hospitals, schools, and other institutions (Khaliq et al., 2018). Lack of hospital preparedness has been recognized as an impending issue that is adversely impacting hospitals, thereby warranting more attention than ever before (Munasinghe et al., 2019). Some hospitals have been dramatically impacted by disasters, resulting in many deaths and injuries. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters What occurred at Jazan General Hospital in 2015 was one of these incidents (Monroe, 2018). One significant reason that increased the fire’s adverse effects at this hospital was the failure of the emergency system to ensure that there were appropriate safety standards. Therefore, according to HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 9 Monroe (2018), if there were adequate safety standards to be followed by Jazan General Hospital, this disaster could have been prevented. Monroe (2018) states that there were gaps in the hospital’s preparedness for safety measures, such as low-quality construction and design of the building, poor structural maintenance, and inadequate training among the hospital staff. The hospital’s ceiling, for instance, was considered highly flammable, and the oxygen pipes did not meet the standards for safety measures (Monroe, 2018). These inadequate measures led to spreading the fire in the hospital rapidly. Monroe (2018) also argues that inadequate staff training in disaster management was a significant issue during responding to the fire. Thus, Saudi hospitals should implement disaster management training programs to ensure that their employees are trained to respond to disasters effectively. The Vulnerability of Floods in Southwestern Saudi Arabia Abdelkarim (2019) states that many infrastructures in southwestern Saudi Arabia stand at a risk of damage as a result of floods and rainfall as the water flows in the main valleys and streams. The Jizan-Abha highway was hit by a flood that contributed to property loss, people, and the infrastructure itself as it sunk along with the surrounding settlements. Urbanization is a contributing factor to hydrological and hydraulic processes as well as urban flooding (Abdelkarim, 2019). Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Land uses are often changed by human activities that strive to meet human needs such as residential, industrial, agricultural, mining, infrastructure, amongst other needs, which are important economic activities for sustainable growth in a given region. These activities, however, play a significant role in the hydrological behavior of drainage, which has a significant impact on the hydrological cycle (Abdelkarim, 2019). Further, increased urban activities in flood plain regions will lead to an increase in peak discharge, reduce time to peak, HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 10 and escalate runoff volume. Thus, an understanding of the impact of hydrologic processes has become essential in fostering planning, management, as well creation of sustainable watershed (Abdelkarim,2019). According to Abdelkarim (2019), the inflow in the central valley and streams due to torrential rains and floods exposes the Saudi Arabian infrastructure facilities to severe damages. The Jizan-Abha Highway is significant infrastructure in the country as it plays a crucial role in supporting the country’s economic activities such as logistic aspects and contributes to the increased supply of GDP of the country amongst other essential roles that are significant to the growth of the country (Abdelkarim, 2019). Thus, its damage results in significant losses to the country. There are adverse impacts that are a result of natural disasters such as a flood. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Hence, the relevant organizations have to find ways to mitigate the impact these disasters would have on people, property, as well as the surrounding region the disaster occurs (Abdelkarim, 2019). The response teams have to be well equipped for intervention during disasters. The contributing factors that have previously resulted in flooding along Jizan-Abha Highway should be evaluated to ensure the same does not take place in the future (Abdelkarim, 2019). Hospitals, on the other hand, should have the necessary resources to help victims of disasters and to find electronic means of moving patient records in case evacuation is necessary as a way of saving lives to eliminate instances where they have missing patient records. It is thus vital that hospitals be wellprepared for disasters such as major floods. The Lack of Hospital Preparedness for Flooding in Jeddah Bajow & Alkhalil (2014) state that in 2009, many hospitals in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia, experienced critical circumstances due to major floods. This one type of natural disaster HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 11 indicated that there was a lack of hospital preparedness in Jeddah for flooding. Bajow and Alkhalil (2014) conducted an empirical study to evaluate six hospitals in Jeddah regarding their preparedness for disasters. The researchers visited the chosen hospitals to investigate them and gathered data to evaluate their preparedness. The investigation focused on the infrastructure construction within the chosen hospitals. Bajow & Alkhalil (2014) aimed to focus on the following elements: “architectural and furnishing, safety of lifeline facilities, hospital location and areas, maintenance of utilities, surge capacity, emergency and disaster plan, control of communication and coordination” (p. 2669). Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters The outcomes of the assessment showed that the six hospitals had developed tools and indicators to prepare for and respond to internal disasters. Despite all the prepared materials, however, these hospitals did not perform training exercises for their staff on these tools and indicators to practice the right approach to use when such internal disasters occur (Bajow & Alkhalil, 2014). This suggests that hospitals should educate and train all their personnel, not only healthcare workers, but also those working as safety and security personnel, to be more knowledgeable in terms of hospital disaster preparedness planning, including implementing and operating a hospital evacuation plan effectively. Bajow and Alkhalil (2014) have highlighted the critical need for Saudi hospitals to train all their personnel in disaster management and hospital preparedness for emergencies. However, Bajow et al. (2015) state that the poor education and training programs in disaster management among many Saudi medical schools and hospitals have been significant issues in preparing Saudi hospital staff for disasters. The Lack of Disaster Management Curricula in Saudi Medical Schools HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 12 Another study concluded that including disaster management courses in Saudi medical colleges will likely help future healthcare workers to be more knowledgeable in terms of hospital disaster preparedness. Bajow et al. (2015) conducted a study to evaluate the level of teaching disaster management in Saudi medical schools. They sent a survey to thirty Saudi medical colleges to engage in the assessment, yet only twenty schools participated. Out of these twenty colleges, only three schools include disaster management in their curriculum. Those schools which do not teach disaster medicine stated that the primary reason was that they have a lack of expertise in this field (Bajow et al., 2015). Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters The result of this study revealed that most of the Saudi medical schools did not include disaster management curricula (Bajow et al., 2015). Bajow et al. (2015) conclude that the lack of education in disaster management among Saudi medical schools made it challenging for Saudi healthcare workers to be knowledgeable regarding disasters, adversely impacting the level of hospital disaster preparedness in some Saudi hospitals. Being prepared to respond to disasters is crucial for hospital staff since disasters have unexpectedly struck hospitals around the globe. It is pivotal that a country such as Saudi Arabia, in which there are few experts in the field of disaster management, develops hospital disaster preparedness by performing training programs and drills. However, the lack of disaster management education and training programs in Saudi Arabia will likely make it complicated for hospitals to be prepared to respond to disasters. It is thus recommended that Saudi medical schools include disaster management courses in their curricula to educate medical students about this critical subject before beginning their careers as healthcare providers (Bajow et al. 2015). Saudi hospitals should also adhere to the Saudi Ministry of Health and the Joint Commission standards to update their disaster plans and implement training courses and drills in disaster HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 13 management for all the hospital staff since these procedures will likely benefit the other staff members who are not healthcare providers. Inadequate Training Programs and Drills in Saudi Hospitals Additionally, there is a current study in Saudi Arabia that has shown the critical need for developing an active training program for nurses to be more prepared for disasters. Baker et al. (2019) evaluated 350 nurses working in five government hospitals in Medina, Saudi Arabia, to assess their preparedness for disasters. Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters hospitals, including nurses, should be prepared for such major disasters since this country has encountered both natural and human-made disasters (Baker et al., 2019). These same authors state that although nurses around the globe can play a critical role in succeeding in responding to disasters, the majority of them have minimal knowledge and experience of disaster preparedness. Thus, the researchers in this study surveyed the 350 nurses by asking them three questions that focused on assessing their preparedness for disasters. The first question of the survey was to determine “the nurses’ likelihood of taking an action in community disasters,” while the second question was to assess their ability to predict the risk of responding to disasters (Baker et al., 2019, p. 1480). The last question was regarding “the commitment to participate in emergency preparedness in the community. While gathering data, Baker et al. (2019) also focused on the nurses’ age, gender, education, experience, and training in disaster management. Baker et al. (2019) concluded that the level of knowledge among the participant nurses was acceptable; however, they had a deficit in terms of their participation, preparedness, and commitment. This study also recommended that hospital nurse educators should implement an effective curriculum that highlights developing the level of hospital disaster preparedness and HOSPITAL PREPAREDNESS FOR INTERNAL DISASTERS 14 establishing plans to improve disaster management protocols and guidelines among the staff (Baker et al., 2019). The Advantages of Effective Hospital Preparedness Plan in Saudi Arabia …Assignment: Preparedness and Level of Awareness to Internal Disasters Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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