Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing

Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing 1.Topic for the Assignment: Lateral Violence and Fundamental Principles of Caring in Nursing 2. For now, I only need the Outline and Reference paper which would be followed later on with the main paper (minimum of 5 pages). Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing 3. I have attached the detailed assignment sheet with grading rubric 4. I have attached research journal articles that are going to be used for writing the outline 5. I have attached the instructor’s SAMPLE Outline 6. I have attached resources for the success of the assignment, such as the MEAL plan 7. No title page required at this time 8. Paper should be double-spaced and written in APA style Let me know if you have any question I am going to upload more materials needed for this assignment scan0012.pdf scan0013.pdf scan0014.pdf outline_assignment_material_1.pdf outline_assignment_material_2.pdf LATERAL VIOLENCE IN NURSING: IMPLICATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR NURSE EDUCATORS ERICKA SANNER-STIEHR, PHD, RN* AND PEGGY WARD-SMITH, PHD, RN† Lateral violence among nurses persists as a prevalent problem, contributing to psychological distress, staff turnover, and attrition. Newly graduated nurses are at particular risk for being targets of lateral violence and experiencing its negative sequelae. Preparing student nurses to respond to lateral violence prior to entering the nursing may alter this scenario. A review of the literature was conducted to determine the potential for nursing faculty to change the cycle of lateral violence. Based on this review, we recommend 3 main strategies, specifically for nursing faculty, aimed at reducing incidences of lateral violence and preparing students to manage this phenomenon. First, curricular content can address integrating lateral violence content into simulation experiences and facilitating this knowledge into clinical experiences. Second, codes of conduct should guide behaviors for both students and faculty. Finally, as role models, faculty should be aware of their own behaviors, role model respectful communication, facilitate a courteous academic environment, and develop nurses capable of identifying and appropriately responding to lateral violence. (Index words: Lateral violence; Student nurses; Nursing education; Prelicensure; Faculty; Strategy) J Prof Nurs 33:113– 118, 2017. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. L ATERAL VIOLENCE AMONG nurses is well documented as a persistent and ubiquitous problem. Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing Also known as horizontal violence, bullying, and incivilities, lateral violence describes behaviors intended to demean, undermine, and/or belittle a targeted individual working at the same professional level. Common examples of lateral violence include verbal assaults (yelling, persistent criticism, swearing, or belittling); nonverbal innuendo (eye rolling, sighing, ignoring); undermining and sabotage (withholding information, refusing to help); failure to respect privacy; and broken confidences, gossiping and spreading rumors, and scapegoating (Embree & White, 2010; Vagharseyyedin, 2015). Lateral violence contributes to a range of negative consequences including depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances (Vessey, Demarco, & DiFazio, 2010), a decreased sense of well-being (Dehue, Bolman, Völlink, & Pouwelse, 2012), and physical illnesses (Kivimäki et al., 2003). *Assistant Professor at University of Missouri-Saint Louis, College of Nursing, St. Louis, MO. †Associate Professor at University of Missouri, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Kansas City, MO. Address correspondence to Ericka Sanner-Stiehr: Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, 1 University Drive Seton 220, University of Missouri- St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63141. E-mail: [email protected] 8755-7223 Employees who are dissatisfied with their work environment may eventually leave if voicing their concerns or ignoring offending parties does not solve the problem (Sanner-Stiehr & Ward-Smith, 2014). Hospital staff turnover rates rose to a 5-year high at 17.2% in 2014, with nursing turnover accounting for over 95% of that alarmingly high number (NSI Nursing Solutions, Inc., 2015). High turnover create financial burdens for institutions that spend an estimated 20%–50% of an annual nurse salary to replace those who leave (Boushey & Glynn, 2012; NSI Nursing Solutions, Inc., 2015).Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing In addition to the financial costs associated with turnover rates, lateral violence has been linked to attrition from the profession altogether (Johnson & Rea, 2009; Lewis, 2006), exacerbating the already concerning nursing shortage (American Association of the Colleges of Nursing, 2014). Most alarmingly, dysfunctional workplace communication and staff turnover also compromise patient care and safety (The Joint Commission, 2008), and Laschinger (2014) found that nurses perceived a decrease in quality of patient care when uncivil behaviors were present in their workplace. In response to the mounting evidence of negative consequences, the Joint Commission for Healthcare Accreditation (2008) appealed to all health care organizations to take measures to decrease behaviors that undermine safety culture. Health care organizations subsequently implemented zero-tolerance policies, blueprints for reporting Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 33, No. 2 (March/April), 2017: pp 113–118 © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 113 114 SANNER-STIEHR AND WARD-SMITH and managing instances of lateral violence and other disruptive behaviors. Unfortunately, these measures only address instances once they have occurred, and reporting is deterred by fear of retribution (Jackson et al., 2010; Peters et al., 2011) and perceived lack of managerial/administrative support for targets (Lindy & Schaeffer, 2010). Approximately 17.2% of nurses either change jobs or leave the profession annually, an increase from 13.5% in 2011 (NSI Nursing Solutions, Inc., 2015). Among newly licensed nurses, these rates are even higher, between an estimated 25% and 33% (Booth, 2011; MacKusick & Minick, 2010). Throughout the past decade, hostile work environment and incivilities have been cited as significant reasons for these alarmingly high rates (Booth, 2011; Chachula, Myrick, & Yonge, 2015; Gaynor, Gallasch, Yorkston, Stewart, & Turner, 2006; MacKusick & Minick, 2010; Read & Laschinger, 2013). With an imminent and potentially serious nursing shortage (American Association of the Colleges of Nursing, 2014; NSI Nursing Solutions, Inc., 2015), Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing retention of newly licensed nurses will be critical to maintaining an adequate and sustainable nursing workforce (Laschinger, Grau, Finegan, & Wilk, 2010). Most recently, the American Nurses Association (2015) issued a position statement on the unacceptability of lateral violence. Communication between members of the health care team, including nurses, is imperative to the delivery of safe patient care. Intraprofessional education is increasingly common in prelicensure education in accordance with Standard IV of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Essentials for baccalaureate nursing education (American Association of the Colleges of Nursing, 2008). Despite nurses constituting the largest profession in health care, intraprofessional communication remains conspicuously absent from prelicensure nursing curriculum standards. In the past, lateral violence may have been tolerated as an unappealing but unavoidable facet of nursing, but that conversation is changing. Student nurses are aware of the lateral violence they are likely to encounter and have begun appealing to nurse educators in print, asking nursing educators to include training specific to lateral violence in curricula (Brox, 2015; Lissade, 2015; National Student Nurses’ Association, 2015). Nurse educators must respond by providing this student-centered education (Figure 1). Methods A literature review was conducted utilizing the following databases: Academic Search Complete, MedLine, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. Search terms included lateral violence, horizontal violence, workplace bullying, nurs*, nursing, faculty, educator*, student nurses, nursing students, attrition, turnover, new grad*, education, financial, cost, communication, manager*, reporting, prelicensure, and nursing school. Years searched included in the search ranged from 2005 to 2015 to describe the historical context and evolution of attempts at solutions over the last decade. Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing Criteria for inclusion in this review included those with a focus on background, student experiences with lateral violence, the scope of incivility in the nursing academic setting, and interventions for students and faculty incivilities. This article focuses on implications for nurse educators rather than hospital administrators; thus, articles focused on interventions aimed at registered nurses at the hospital level were excluded. In addition, professional documents such as the American Association of Colleges of Nursing’s, 2008 Essentials for Baccalaureate Education (2008) and The Joint Commission’s, (2008) report on Safety Alerts were included as background context of lateral violence in nursing. In all, a total of 40 relevant references including articles, reports, and documents were identified through this review. Identification of Strategies Lateral violence as a self-perpetuating cycle in nursing emerged as the overarching theme from this literature review, revealing three ways in which nurse educators can intervene to interrupt the cycle. First, exposure to lateral violence often occurs during clinical rotations and interactions with fellow students and faculty (Bowllan, 2015; Cooper, Walker, Askew, Robinson, & McNair, 2011; Hinchberger, 2009). Student nurses are particularly vulnerable to being targets of lateral violence (King-Jones, 2011); unfortunately, effective response strategies may not be addressed in nursing education. Lacking the ability to identify and appropriately respond can lead to formation of maladaptive coping mechanisms, negative personal consequences, and attrition and staff turnover (Sanner-Stiehr & Recommendations for Nurse Educators • Address instances of lateral violence in clinical rotations • Include education about lateral violence and the opportunity to rehearse appropriate communication strategies within the curriculum • State expectations for professionalism explicitly in Codes of Conduct and enforce consistently • Role model professional and respectful communication . Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing Figure 1. Recommendations for nurse educators. LATERAL VIOLENCE IN NURSING Ward-Smith, 2013; Sanner-Stiehr & Ward-Smith, 2014). Education specifically focused on preventing, identifying, and responding to lateral violence while in an academic setting can increase student nurses’ ability to respond to lateral violence once graduated. Second, students may be exposed to lateral violence and other hostilities in the academic environment. Nurse educators must take care to ensure that the academic atmosphere does not send the message that lateral violence is acceptable. Enforcing codes of conduct and providing counseling for students who breach those rules through incivilities can help to break the cycle. Third, as the hierarchical leaders in an academic environment, faculty serve as role-models, setting standards for professional conduct. Because faculty–faculty incivilities can translate into role-modeling of an unsupportive and antagonistic environment, faculty behavior issues should be identified and resolved. This article discusses each of these three main strategies in further detail, as the most promising approach to breaking the cycle of lateral violence. Implications and Strategies for Nurse Educators Strategy #1: Curricular Content As health care employees, nurses encounter mentally, emotionally, and physically stressful situations on a daily basis. The ability to identify inappropriate communication and knowledge of how to respond can prevent escalation, restore an atmosphere of respect, and maintain focus on the crucial mutual goal: patient care delivery. Education about lateral violence should provide the opportunity to develop and practice communication skills specific to the professional nursing work environment. Furthermore, specific training related to responding to lateral violence is essential because the line between assertiveness and incivility can often become blurred without proper guidance (Rad, Mirhaghi, & Shomoossi, 2015). Simulation. Simulation, as an instructional modality, has gained increasing popularity in contemporary nursing education for its applicability to a variety of clinical scenarios (Jeffries, 2014). The ability to rehearse responses in a controlled environment alleviates the pressure of stressful situations and facilitates skill mastery (Bandura, 1997).Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing Incorporating lateral violence situations into simulation experiences can provide a nonthreatening environment in which student nurses can develop effective response strategies to common lateral violence situations (Sanner-Stiehr & Ward-Smith, 2015). Simulations typically include three main steps: (a) prebriefing, (2b) simulated experience, and (c) debriefing (Jeffries, 2014). Prebriefing for lateral violence response training simulations should include defining lateral violence behaviors and a discussion of the goals of effective responses. Whether covert or overt, lateral violence behaviors disrupt respectful communication and/or threaten safe patient care delivery. As a result, simulated response training should focus on restoring respect and ensuring that patients receive high-quality care. These 115 goals should be followed by role-modeling of effective response strategies that address these goals. Following prebriefing, students should have the opportunity to practice responding to lateral violence behaviors, applying knowledge acquired during prebriefing. Students should be allowed to phrase responses in their own words to create a more organic experience. Although facilitators typically do not provide feedback during simulated scenarios, feedback to correct ineffective response strategies and provide additional coaching may be crucial. If students practice ineffective responses that do not address the overall goals, they will not benefit from the exercise. The final step, debriefing, allows students the opportunity to reflect on the experience, discuss alternative responses for situations and, most importantly, generalize response strategies to alternate situations. Facilitators should guide debriefing discussions with semiopen-ended questions such as “How did you feel about this experience?” and narrow the focus gradually to generalizing. Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing For example, asking students, “Have any of you experienced similar situations” can encourage students to share previous experiences and provide the opportunity to discuss how response strategy techniques and goals can be applied to different situations. Although other members of the health care team such as physicians and managers may engage in disruptive behaviors, these relationships inherently involve authority gradients. Because of the innate power inequality present in these situations, we recommend that training specific to responding to nonlateral disruption in communication should be provided separately. We recommend including response strategy simulation at least twice during prelicensure education. Because most programs are two years in length, including it as a stand-alone scenario during the first year can introduce concepts early while students become adjusted to the simulation process and core coursework. Subsequently in the second year, we suggest including elements of lateral violence or disruptive behaviors into simulations focused on management of physiological problems to increase the realistic presentation of how these situations manifest. Simulated response training provides student nurses with the intraprofessional development education solicited by the National Student Nurses’ Association (2015) and can ultimately lessen the negative effects of lateral violence in the workplace. Nurse educators interested in learning more about specific lateral violence response training for simulation may contact the primary author for details. Clinical Experiences. Student nurses often either experience or witness lateral violence during their clinical rotations (Levett-Jones, Pitt, Courtney-Pratt, Harbrow, & Rossiter, 2015). Leaving these situations unaddressed can lead to the formation of maladaptive coping mechanisms or worse, the impression that lateral violence is a routine and expected aspect of nursing (Sanner-Stiehr & Ward-Smith, 2013). Integrating education into postclinical debriefings, especially when lateral violence has been experienced or observed, provides an opportunity to learn from those incidents and immediately reinforces appropriate 116 SANNER-STIEHR AND WARD-SMITH communication strategies. Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing Student placement for clinical experiences should utilize clinical settings that are supportive of student nurses and with individuals who role-model appropriate and professional behavior. Designated education units address this need by providing partnerships between educators and clinicians, training nurses in their role as preceptors (McVey, Vessey, Kenner, & Pressler, 2014), and ensuring that professionalism is emphasized and that students gain experiences on units where they are welcomed (Galuska, 2015). As often as possible, designated education units should be utilized for clinical placements. Strategy #2: Codes of Conduct learning environment, one in which the behavior of faculty aligns with the mission statement of the institution. The results of an Internet review of universities and the presence of faculty honor codes indicate that many institutions have or are developing these documents (American Association of University Professors, n.d.). In addition, Clark (2015) provides that interventions faculty can implement to avoid incivility in educational settings. Prevention is preferred, and careful attention to developing behavioral norms that do not include any type of lateral violence or incivility, and adhering to these norms, according to Clark (2015) avoids inappropriate situations, which enhance learning. Strategy #3: Faculty Role and Responsibility Students. Prelicensure nursing programs should include appropriate behavior statements within their code of conduct statements, extending beyond academic dishonesty to social behaviors and communication policies. Clearly delineating expectations for student behavior and consequences for breaches not only lets students know what is expected of them while in school but can also help develop professional habits upon entry to the workforce. Common disruptive student behaviors that should be addressed include tardiness, sleeping during class, uncivil or sarcastic comments during class, bullying peers, challenging professors’ competence and credibility, and academic dishonesty (Clark & Springer, 2007a, 2007b). Assignment: Lateral Violence & Principles of Caring in Nursing If breaches of codes of conduct are unaddressed or tolerated during nursing school, unacceptable behaviors are likely to continue and escalate in professional practice. Unprofessional and inappropriate behaviors reflect poorly on the individuals behaving in a disruptive manner, the colleges/schools of nursing they attended, and the profession of nursing as a whole. Kolanko et al. (2006) notes that if students are identified as at-risk, the behaviors can be counseled and corrected as part of their educational process. Cooper et al. (2009) found that using profanity, belittling remarks, and inappropriate, rude, and hostile language were the most common forms of lateral violence among student nurses surveyed. When these types of behaviors are witnessed, students must be held consistently accountable to the standards set for acceptable behaviors. Faculty. Although most academic settings have codes of conduct for students, faculty codes of conduct and disciplinary procedures may not be a part of the academic policies or may be ineffectively implemented. The American Association of University Professors Statement on Professional Ethics (2014) state that faculty are expected to “seek and state the truth as they see it (Nagel, 2014, para 18).” Codes of conduct are separate and not overlapping of academic freedom and tenure issues. In 2012, International Association of Universities adopted a guideline articulating a code of ethics in higher education. This document describes values and principles and provides procedures and practices useful to identify inappropriate behavior and sanctions, should they be required. These guidelines are aimed at assuring that institutions of higher education provide a The most … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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