Assignment: Counseling Art And Science

Assignment: Counseling Art And Science
Assignment: Counseling Art And Science
Assignment: Counseling Art And Science
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Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
Chapter 3:
The Counseling Process
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
1
The Art and Science of Counseling
Art
Involves listening and communicating with the client
Entails tuning into the client’s world with sensitivity
Science
Includes the use of theory and research
Use of standardized tests
Counseling is a fluid process shaped by clients’ individual needs
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Six Stages of the Counseling Process
Stage 1: Relationship building
Stage 2: Assessment and diagnosis
Stage 3: Formulation of counseling goals
Stage 4: Intervention and problem solving
Stage 5: Termination and follow-up
Stage 6: Research and evaluation
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building
Rogers’ (1957) core conditions include empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence
(continued…)
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building—Empathy
Considered the most important core condition
Process that involves listening, understanding, and communicating that understanding to the client
Rogers emphasized empathy to include entering into client’s phenomenological world
Gladstein’s (1983) stages of empathy
Counselor has an emotional reaction to client
Counselor attempts to understand the client’s situation from client’s perspective
Counselor communicates empathy to the client
Client feels a sense of caring and understanding from the counselor
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building—Unconditional Positive Regard
Also known as nonpossessive warmth, acceptance, prizing, respect, and regard
Believed by some to be unattainable
Concept that is deemed to be misunderstood
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building—Congruence, Respect, and Immediacy
Congruence
Counselor behaving consistent with thinking and feelings
Genuineness
Respect
Focuses on positive aspects of the client
Expressed by making positive statements to client
Immediacy
Here-and-now communication
May include expression of counselor’s thinking or feelings at the time
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1: Relationship Building—Confrontation, Concreteness, and Self-Disclosure
Confrontation
Counselor points out discrepancies in client’s actions and thoughts
Concreteness
Counselor helps client hone in on specific concerns
Self-disclosure
Self-disclosing statements: counselor shares factual information about themselves
Self-involving statements: counselor describes what they are experiencing in counseling process
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 2: Assessment and Diagnosis
Standardized and non-standardized
Facilitates diagnosis and prognosis
Provides an in-depth understanding of client
Enables goal setting
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 3: Formulation of Counseling Goals
Serves function to motivate
Clients work hard on goals they create
Specific goals help clients focus
Function to educate
Client can learn new skills and behaviors
Function to evaluate
Determines progress
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 3: Formulation of Counseling Goals
Goals can be either process or outcome goals
Process: steps that need to occur to make counseling work—counselor’s responsibility
Outcome: specifies what the client hopes to accomplish
Five outcome goals
Facilitating behavioral change
Enhancing coping skills
Prompting decision making
Improving relationships
Facilitating client potential
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 4: Intervention and Problem Solving
Interventions
After goals are set interventions can be determined
May include various modalities such as individual, group family counseling
Considers client’s strengths and weakness when selecting interventions
Enhances strengths
Problem Solving
Teaches how to use problem solving
Kanfer and Busemeyer’s (1982) six-stage model: problem detection, problem definition, identification of alternative solutions, decision making, execution, and verification
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Assignment: Counseling Art And Science
Stage 5: Termination and Follow-Up
Once goals are met, termination can be planned
Best to work collaboratively with counselor and client
Discuss ending counseling, overview of counseling, counselor-client relationship, and post-counseling plans
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 6: Research and Evaluation
Can occur at anytime in counseling
Some research utilizes single case designs or case reviews
Helps add to the field of science
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Listening Skills: Primary Skills
Open-ended questions
Cannot be answered with a simple “yes” or “no”
Encourages elaboration of responses
Paraphrasing
Taking points made by the client and rewording it
Communicates to client understanding
Allowing for client to make correction
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Listening Skills: Primary Skills
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Reflection of feeling
Counselor reflects client feeling
Communicates empathy and understanding
Minimal encouragers
Gestures to facilitate client expression, e.g. “ah-ha”, “go on”
Listening Skills: Primary Skills
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Clarifying remarks
Used when counselor did not hear or does not understand
Expresses interest in wanting to understand
Summarizing
Restating main points
Perception check
Following a summary statement
Counselor asks if this is a focus point for the client
Listening “Don’ts”
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Avoid moralizing or being judgmental
Avoid premature analysis
Avoid “parroting”
Avoid “gimmicky” phrases
Listening Skills: Secondary Skills
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Normalizing
Helping clients understand that their reactions are normal
Diffuses stress and pressure
Structuring
Counselor defines role and counseling process
Probing
Counselor asks for specific information
Minimize its usage
Listening “Dos”
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Decide to be in the role of the listener
Try to sense the client’s inner message
Be aware of nonverbal communication
Allow yourself to correct impressions
Emotions in Counseling
Nystul’s emotional balancing
Emotions are on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshment
Emotion balance has
Clear boundaries
Autonomy
Intimacy
Connection among people
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Strategies for Helping Clients Express
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Develop a meaningful life through stories
Alternative stories
Reauthoring
Narrative repair
Metaphors
Suggests that one idea is similar to another
Used in counseling to gain insight
Helps clients look at their problems from a different perspective
Brief Counseling
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Clients seek help with specific problems
Research demonstrates efficiency
Time limited—problem solution-focused
Manage care
Brief Solution-Focused Counseling
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Stage 1
Establishing the relationship and defining the problem
Stage 2
Assessment and establishing treatment goals
Stage 3
Designing and implementing interventions
Stage 4
Termination, follow-up, and evaluation
Common Problems for Beginning Counselors
Focusing on the first issue in a session
Overlooking physical or medical issues
Wanting to rescue client
Having perfectionist tendencies
Having unrealistic expectations
Getting carried away with latest technique
Getting lost in the counseling process
Using inappropriate phrases
Having excessive desire to help
Having excessive need to be liked
Getting too emotionally involved
Taking things too personally
Difficulty differentiating normal from abnormal
Uncertain about self-disclosure
Uncertain about confidentiality
Nystul, Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective
© 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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