Please answer the following questions using at lease 3 paragraphs:
One of the most important themes that I want you to consider as you go through this course is the fact that there is rarely a simple explanation for someones behavior. Bronfenbrenners theory of development provides an excellent model for considering all of the different types of variables that can impact our lives. We are affected by personal variables (such as gender, appearance, intelligence, personality, etc.), our immediate environments (such as school or work), and the broader context (culture, government policies, etc.). Your task for this discussion question is to generate at least 2-3 explanations as to why so many pregnant women in the United States do not get adequate prenatal care. For each explanation, explain which level(s) of Bronfenbrenners theory are applicable.
Does societys interest in protecting fetuses justify coercive and/or punitive measures against pregnant women who use alcohol, nicotine, or other drugs? If no, then why not? If yes, what form should such measures take? What might be some of the potential drawbacks or unintended consequences that might arise if we were to enact such penalties or sanctions?
Urie Bronfenbrenner theory is based on ecological theory, which is focusing on environmental factors (Santrock, 2011). The Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological theory is explained how natural environments can be a big influence to the development of persons. In other words, the development of persons can be affected by the surroundings from home to the wider context such as culture. Bronfenbrenner stated that there were many different levels and types of environment effects that might affect how a child grows and develops (Shaffer & Kipp, 2010). There are the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem.
The microsystem refers to the interactions between a person and the people surroundings him or closes to him. To put in differently, it is the small and immediate environment where the person lives in for instance a persons family, school, peers, neighborhood play area and work. The second of Bronfenbrenners environmental layers is the mesosystem. The mesosystem is defined as the relationship or connection between different parts of the microsystem like the relationships between family and teachers, family and peers, and teachers and religious group. Next is the exosystem. The exosytem level has the less interaction or may not have it all between the children or adolescents and the other people or places but they may affect the development of the person herself, for instance parents work environments, extended family members and neighborhood. Last but not least is the macrosystem. Bronfenbrenner defines that the macrosystem consists of cultural, subcultural, or social class context (Shaffer & Kipp, 2010). It is wide, and the largest level in this theory but still it has a great influence to the person. The macrosystem includes the economy, government, wars, the relative freedoms and cultural values. Therefore, the persons can get the positive and negative impact from this level. Finally is the chronosystem. The chronosystem is about how the pattern of individuals life is changing over time depending on the environmental events. Besides, the environmental changes caused by cognitive and biological changing that occur at the puberty as well as the age of the individual.